Boron - The magic key to better health 
By Walter Sorochan HSD, MPH, MSc, BPE; Emeritus Professor San Diego State University

Posted October 29,  2018.  Disclaimer  The information presented here is for informative and educational purposes only and is not intended as curative or prescriptive advice. Although the FDA has not approved the information herein, you should work with your informed medical doctor.

Many of my friends and relatives have had numerous back and joint pains that medical doctors have not been able to fix. Although this author has had a broken synovial fluid capsule in a hip-joint for many years, he was able to successfully minimize hip-joint pain without medications or hip-joint replacement. It is this background that has motivated him to search for the missing link to joint pain and arthritis. Although he was aware of boron as perhaps being helpful in preventing joint pain and inflammation, he was surprised when he found new research articles about boron in the past few weeks about boron that he had not seen previously on the internet. Readers should view this article as an update to the importance of boron in preventing joint pain, inflammation, healing and preventing a host of chronic diseases.

A shocking revelation was that boron is the essential magic key to better health and that it has been ignored for over 60 years. It explains why medical doctors have been unsuccessful in prescribing medications to combat joint pain, chronic inflammation, arthritis and many chronic disorders. Dr. Rex E. Newnham, PhD, did most of the preliminary studies linking boron to arthritis, cancer and many other health problems.  Newnham: Boron for healthy joints 1994 He opened the door for other researchers to built their studies on boron research.

Background information: Boron is found in food, soil and water. Boron (B, atomic number 5, atomic weight 10.811 g/mole) never occurs in nature by itself - it is always found chemically bound to oxygen as either boric acid (H3BO3) or its salts, called borates. For example, borax is hydrated sodium borate.  Health Canada: Boron in health products 2007

Most people know boron from its salt, called borax, which has been used in gold-smithing and to clean clothes for thousands of years. Today, Turkey and the United States are the largest producers of borax products and boron.  Wiki: Boron

Boron is found in minute trace amounts in vegetables, fruits and nuts in the form of tetraborate decahydrate that is  identical to boron used by the human body and the reason it is readily absorbed by humans and animals. 

Boron deficiency in USA:  Boron deficiency occurs in people not eating adequate amount of fresh green vegetables, fruit and nuts.  Approximately half the population in the United States consumes less than 1 mg of Boron per day.  Price: Essential nutrients 2012  Kunin: Boron Ortho-mineral 2000

It has been estimated that 55% of Americans over 50 have osteoporosis and of these about 80% are women. Worldwide 1 in 3 women and 1 in 12 men over the age of 50 may have osteoporosis, and this is responsible for millions of fractures each year.  Last: The arthritis cure conspiracy 2012 These statistics are important as boron deficiency is perceived to be a contributing cause in many disorders and diseases.

Although many eat fresh raw vegetables and fruit, researchers have found many Americans to be deficient in boron for several reasons. Many snack on junk and preserved foods instead of eating fresh raw vegetables and fruit. They fail to balance out their diet.  Many are deficient in boron because the food is grown on farms that have had the soil depleted of boron after years of harvesting; while other farms use fossil fertilizers and insecticides that destroy or interfere with boron being absorbed by plants.

Boron is the most common micronutrient deficiency in plants across the world. For example, sugar cane robs the soil of boron and persons living in such places suffer from arthritis; this supports the linking of boron deficiency to humans and arthritis. Although all plants appear to require boron for multiple processes including protein synthesis, development of cell walls, carbohydrate metabolism, sugar transport, pollen growth, and seed production, the requirement varies across the plant kingdom. Pradhan: boron minimizes pain in joints 2016  Kunin: Boron Ortho-mineral 2000

Importance of boron to life and health: Scientific studies indicate that boron is an essential nutrient because the human body cannot make it. Boron is a superior form of calcium [tetraborate] fructoborate. Life Ext Mag: Boron  It is the key to making nutrients work as co-factors.  As a key, it turns on the many cellular functions of the body.  When we are deficient in boron, and most of us are, then we cannot absorb nutrients from food properly, we cannot absorb the vitamin D adequately from sunshine, and we are susceptible to many chronic diseases and disorders. 

Dosage - Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL): for infants was judged not determinable due to insufficient data on adverse effects in this age group and concern about the infant's ability to handle excess amounts. Thus, it was decided that in order to prevent high levels of intake, the only source of intake for infants should be from food and formula. Due to the absence of reports of low dose boron toxicity in children and adolescents, the UL for children and adolescents, was extrapolated from the UL established for adults, and was adjusted on the basis of body weight. DRI UL for Boron:  Health Canada: Boron in health products 2007

    Adults (≥19 y) .................20 mg/day
    Adolescents (14-18 y) ....17 mg/day
    Children (9-13 y)  ...........11 mg/day
    Children (4-8 y)  ...............6 mg/day
    Children (1-3y)  ................3 mg/day

World Health Organization recommended a Tolerable Intake (TI) of 0.4 mg/kg bodyweight/day for humans, which is equal to 28 mg/day for a 70 kg human adult.  Health Canada: Boron in health products 2007

Boron Intake levels: The natural boron content of foods varies considerably, based on the quality of the soil. Moore (1997) estimated that dietary intake of boron in North Americans ranges from 0.26 - 7.1 mg/day, with a mean of 1.9 mg/day, but the upper value of 7.1 mg may be an extreme value.   Health Canada: Boron in health products 2007

Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): As boron appears to have some beneficial nutrient value, Nielsen (1992)  recommended a total daily boron intake of 1 mg to avoid boron deficiency.  Health Canada: Boron in health products 2007

In summary, the daily intake of boron from natural sources by Canadian adults is estimated to be up to 0.86 mg from water and 2.5 mg from food for a total of 3.4 mg/day, with a normal range from 1-4 mg daily depending on dietary habit (e.g. vegetarians ingest more), geographic location or soil condition and other sources of exposure.  Health Canada: Boron in health products 2007

So what foods are best sources of natural tetraborate decarboydrate boron?

Best boron-rich food sources:  AlgaeCal: Best boron food sources

boron food

Note: The boron [B] content in foods in the above table is based on the assumption that foods have been grown on soil not depleted of boron. The boron content in each food is based on an assumption. Readers should also be aware that cooking can destroy boron. Foods cooked in boiling water are quickly leached of boron content. Also, Boron is volatile in steam. Boron loss could conceivably be further enhanced during pressure cooking with chlorinated or fluorinated water; boron–halogen compounds are extremely volatile at high temperatures.

 Pharmacology:

A deficiency in boron may be a causing many health problems and we may not be aware of this. Findings strongly suggest that boron is an essential nutrient for human health.  Life Ext Mag: Boron

boron wand The many researched and validated functions of boron below suggest that boron acts as a key that facilitates not just many body functions but more importantly, coordinates all these functions. Boron makes what appear to be isolated functions happen in a co-factorial manner. Stated in another way, most if not all body functions need boron as a spark to make them happen in a unified whole body manner.

Cell membrane integrity: The exact way boron works in both plants and humans is still somewhat unknown. Boron is required in nucleic acid synthesis, in the maintenance of cell membrane integrity, and in calcium use.   Last: The arthritis cure conspiracy 2012 Boron affects cell wall membrane permeable and allows nutrients to move in and out of the cell. A boron deficiency allows calcium to accumulate in the cell, making it more difficult for nutrients to move in and wastes to move out of a cell. This is ambiguously referred to a cell metabolism.  For boron to be fully effective in reversing tissue and cell calcification, the body needs ample magnesium.  Last: The arthritis cure conspiracy 2012  Boron does not act alone in cells, it needs magnesium and other nutrients. 

Although boron is required only in trace amounts, the range separating deficiency and toxicity is narrow. Hunt: boron 2003 The proper Ca:Mg balance is often a 2:1 guesswork .... for with increasing age, boron deficiency and incubating chronic diseases, we need progressively less calcium and more magnesium.  Last: The arthritis cure conspiracy 2012

Boron & calcium-magnesium balance: This is a biochemical balance that is not only difficult to understand but much harder to get right.

Nielsen conducted in 1987 the first human study to suggest that boron affects calcium metabolism. He found that boron deprivation increased the urinary excretion of calcium and magnesium and decreased 17 β-estradiol and testosterone concentrations in postmenopausal women.  Health Canada: Boron in health products 2007

High blood levels of calcium lead to calcification of soft tissues causing muscle contractions, stiffness, calcification of endocrine glands, especially of the pineal gland and the ovaries, arteriosclerosis, kidney stones, and calcification of the kidneys, and ultimately to kidney failure. Boron controls the balance of calcium and magnesium in bones and dental teeth.

The precise mechanical action of boron for bone health is unknown, but boron stabilizes and extends the half-life of vitamin D and estrogen.  Price: Essential nutrients 2012

Absorption: Boron appears to be well absorbed from the intestines [ about 85 % ], and this may be due to being absorbed (as borate) via the transporter known as SLC4A11.  Boron: examined 2018

Ingesting 11.4mg of boron with a meal can elevate plasma boron concentrations within one hour peaking at 4 hours after consumption.

Elimination: Boron is rapidly eliminated from the body and does not build up. Hunt: boron 2003  Mastromatteo in 1994 reported that over 95% of absorbed boron is excreted by the kidneys, and its biological half-life is less than one day.  Mastromatteo: Health effects of boron 1994

Boron Functions and deficiencies in the human body:

The precise mechanism of action of boron for bone health may be unknown, but boron stabilizes cell metabolic functions and regulates other nutrients in the body.

Brain Function: A Boron deficiency intake of less than 0.23mg daily appears to alter brainwave activity; enhancing delta power in the left parietal and temporal lobes and decreasing frontal lobe activity. Intake of 2 mgs of boron per day stabilizes these brain functions. The researchers concluded that boron plays an important role in human brain function and cognitive performance.  Life Ext Mag: Boron  Health Canada: Boron in health products 2007  Kunin: Boron Ortho-mineral 2000   Studies indicate that boron may play a role in human brain function and cognitive performance, and provide additional evidence that boron is an essential nutrient for humans.  Penland: Boron & brain function 1994

Vitamins: Hunt points out that there is a close relation between boron and vitamin intakes; a diet low in boron is typically low in vitamins, especially ascorbic acid.  Hunt: boron 2003  Boron supplementation helps Vitamin D metabolism. So if one is deficient in a vitamin, one should check for boron deficiency as well as vitamin deficiency.

Pain Relief: Last reports that persons inflicted with swollen and painful joints can get relief in one to three months by taking a boron supplement of 3 mgs/day.  Last: The arthritis cure conspiracy 2012  Newnham: Boron for healthy joints 1994  Hip Joint Pain Relief With Boron  Pradhan: boron minimizes pain in joints 2016  This can be accompanied by a  Herxheimer Reaction due to toxins being released faster than these can be excreted; this suggests that healing is taking place. The sudden surplus of toxins can cause a natural reaction of temporary pain.  Last: The arthritis cure conspiracy 2012  Arthitis Institute: Boron daily relieves osteoarthritis 2012

Arthritis: Research shows people with lower boron concentrations in their bones and synovial fluid experience higher rates of arthritis than those with higher boron levels. Other study observations show evidence that bones of patients using boron supplements are much harder to cut than those of patients not using supplements.  Axe: boron & health Boron collects in synovial fluid that acts as a lubricant in all joints.

Osteoarthritis: The effects of boron on calcium metabolism, and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol specifically, noted above may have positive implications on bone metabolism including a reduced risk for osteoporosis and perhaps other maladies as well. In further support of these findings, a study conducted in 13 subjects predetermined to be vitamin D deficient found that during a 60-day supplementation period with 6 mg boron/day, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels rose by an average of 20%. Boron has also been shown to improve bone strength characteristics in rats and pigs. A comparison between countries found that the occurrence of arthritis is negatively correlated with the level of boron in the soil and food supply.  Travers: Boron-arthritis double blind study 1990   Health Canada: Boron in health products 2007

Adequate boron intake is essential to preserving the body’s stores of bone-building calcium and magnesium. Boron promotes optimal mineral balance and ensures healthy calcium utilization.  Life Ext Mag: Boron

Lupus: (Systemic Lupus Erythematosus) Borax [ boron ] has been found to be effective in controlling lupus. One woman wrote in a recent Nexus Magazine of curing her Lupus and serious kidney disease in 4 months with half a teaspoon of daily borax powder.   Last: The arthritis cure conspiracy 2012

Uniformed persons may be alarmed in viewing this information as borax has been used to kill insects. The borax used by the lady with lupus was not the industrial borax; instead it was the medical borax.

Medical borax is a diluted version of borax in water and this medical borax is pretty safe at low dosages. Its toxicity is lower than table salt. As a guide: if you dissolve a level teaspoon (5ml) of borax in a litre of water and then consume 5ml of that per day then you are taking in somewhere in the region of 7mg of boron per day. Those doubting this information should take boron instead of borax. It would be wise to start with a low dosage and work up.  Work with an informed medical doctor.

Hormones: Boron increases the production of and activity of essential hormones like estrogen and testosterone. Researcher Brentwich speculates that the body needs boron to synthesize estrogen, vitamin D, and other steroid hormones.   Brentwich: Boron & Arthritis 1994

Parathyriod gland balance: Boron deficiency causes the parathyroid to become overactive and stressed, causing the glands to release too much parathyroid hormone. Excess parathyroid hormones raise the blood level of calcium by releasing calcium from the bones, joints and teeth into the blood stream. This then leads to osteoarthritis and other forms of arthritis, such as rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile arthritis, spondylitis, gout, lupus, osteoporosis, pyorrhea and tooth decay.  Last: The arthritis cure conspiracy 2012

Reproduction & development: Studies suggest that boron may be essential for proper reproduction and development.  Health Canada: Boron in health products 2007 

Painful periods Some research shows that taking boron 10 mg by mouth daily around the time of menstrual bleeding reduces pain in young women with painful periods.  WebMD: Boron 

Vaginal infections: Some research shows that boric acid, used inside the vagina, can successfully treat yeast infections (candidiasis), including infections that do not seem to get better with other medications and treatments. However, the quality of this research is in question.  WebMD: Boron 

Cancer: Boron inhibits the growth of many cancer tumors.  Kunin: Boron Ortho-mineral 2000

Prostate cancer: Researcher Last points out that boron lowers elevated testosterone levels, shrinks prostate tumors and lowers PSA levels; PSA being a marker for tumors and inflammation in the prostate gland. Last: The arthritis cure conspiracy 2012 PSA levels dropped by an astounding 86-89% in the test animals that received boron.  Life Ext Mag: Boron  Preliminary cell culture, animal and human evidence suggest that boron may have a protective role in prostate cancer risk.

Anti-oxidant Function: Boron in food has Calcium fructoborate [ boric acid] that has antioxidant activity.  Life Ext Mag: Boron

Diabetes - Boron Keeps Insulin Levels Steady: People with diabetes or perinsulinemia could benefit from boron and its ability to regulate insulin. In some cases, deficiency in magnesium may also be linked to boron deficiency, causing diabetes. If you are high-risk for either, it may be beneficial to increase boron in your diet. Boron helps the body effectively metabolize insulin so that a person requires less insulin. Combined with a healthy diet, boron can also help regulate blood sugar levels.  Bakken: Boron and insulin control in animals 2003  But always consult you diabetes doctor and bring this article to his/her attention and let the doctor do the research for more validation of this information.

Obesity: Boron often is associated with oxidative and inflammatory stress. A low boron status might contribute to this stress because a reverse relationship between blood boron concentration and body mass index has been reported. Blood boron levels were shown to be lower in obese subjects in comparison to non-obese subjects.  Hasbahceci: Blood boron & BMI 2013

Research data about boron offer promising insights into the prevention/treatment of obesity and associated diseases.  Dogan: Boron & obesity 2017  Basoglu: Boron may prevent obesity 2011

Boron may prevent cataracts: When calcium is not balanced out by magnesium, the calcium moves from bones into soft tissue, accumulating calcium, leading to faulty nerve transmission. When this happens in the eye lens it causes cataracts.  Last: The arthritis cure conspiracy 2012

Prevents tooth decay: Boron deficiency causes release of calcium from bones and dental enamel, softening the teeth and causing tooth decay. Because boron demonstrates a strong ability to improve natural calcium reuptake, the mineral also improves the re-mineralization process by which tooth enamel is strengthened.

Cardiovascular diseases and disorders: Boron deficiency causes high blood levels of calcium to accumulate, calcify soft tissues in the arteries, eventuating in arteriosclerosis or hardening of the arteries. Boron makes cell wall membranes permeable and allows calcium to move in and out of the cell. For boron to be fully effective in reversing tissue and cell calcification, the body needs ample magnesium.  Last: The arthritis cure conspiracy 2012

Cholesterol and triglycerides: Medical doctor Kunin claims that: "Boranes [ unstable and highly reactive molecule of boron and hydrogen with the chemical formula BH 3. ] also were found to increase excretion of cholesterol and triglyceride into the bile, which was increased in flow volume by almost 50 percent. Re-absorption of cholesterol from the intestinal tract was also reduced and the boranes were found to lower cholesterol synthesis by blocking the enzyme HMG Coenzyme A reductase, an action comparable to the statin drugs. Boranes lowered cholesterol by 18 to 48 percent and triglycerides by 12 to 77 percent after only 16 days of treatment."  Kunin: Boron Ortho-mineral 2000

Ageing: There is some evidence that boron deficiency may accelerate the aging process, although we need more research on this subject. Dietary boron is involved in some as yet undefined process associated with senescence. A very low boron diet leads to a faster rate of aging and a high boron diet can also greatly accelerate the rate of aging. Massie: Effect of boron on aging 1994

Numerous research studies supporting the above claims may be found at:  Kunin: Boron Ortho-mineral 2000  Mastromatteo: Health effects of boron 1994

Caution - Do not jump to false conclusions: The above disorders and illnesses may be due to a deficiency of boron in the diet. This author cautiously uses the words "may be" as boron may not be the only factor causing health problems.  Other nutrient deficiencies may include vitamin D [lack of sunshine], iodine, vitamin C, B-complex vitamins, other vitamins, and minerals like magnesium, zinc, chromium and so on. It could be just eating a bad junk diet as well. Boron is an alkali and can adjust the pH of the body. But boron appears to be definitely a key player in the health of the body.

Since boron cannot readily accumulate within the tissues of animals, meat and dairy products are poor sources of this mineral. Also, processed foods, freezing, canning and discarding the water in which food is cooked can reduce the content of boron in the food.

Toxicity: The Tolerable Upper Limit (TUL) of Boron has been set at 20 mg daily for persons over the age of 18. The average dose is 1 to 3 mgs per day. However, most persons are deficient in boron, with intake less than 1 mg per day, and since there is no buildup of boron in the body, most persons would seldom if ever have toxicity issues.  Hunt: boron 2003 

Alert:   The National Institute of Health warns consumers that boron supplements can be harmful to people with hormone-sensitive conditions like breast or prostate cancer, endometriosis, and uterine fibroids since boron can increase estrogen levels. People with existing cases of kidney disease or liver disease should also use boron supplements very carefully and seek the advice of an informed doctor first since these conditions can alter the way the body gets rid of excess boron and other minerals.

Supplements: Boron intake from food is not toxic but boron from excessive supplements may cause toxicity.

The Recommended Daily Allowance of boron has not been established. Toxicity would seldom happen as excess boron is rapidly excreted in the urine. Thus, it is reasonable to supplement the diet with 1-3 mgs of boron although this dietary need may also be met by increased consumption of fresh vegetables, nuts and fruits such as prunes, raisins, dried apricots, or avocados.  Price: Essential nutrients 2012 

Boron is available in three-milligram [3mgs] pill format in most health food stores in North America. Morris: Curing arthritis 

Despite boron’s critical importance in maintaining bone health, some of the leading bone health products on the market — especially those containing calcium, vitamin D, and magnesium—do not include any form of boron! Furthermore, the few products that do include forms of boron are not optimally absorbed. The absence of boron in bone health supplements may contribute to the epidemic of low bone mass and osteoporosis that afflicts so many aging adults, even those who use commercial supplements.  Life Ext Mag: Boron

Lab tests for boron in blood:

Medical doctor Kunin reports doing blood, hair and urine tests on his patients.  Kunin: Boron Ortho-mineral 2000 But your medical doctor may have to search for a lab that does such tests. This author found this lab West Pacific Medical Lab doing boron tests: Test Name Boron Quantitative, Serum or Plasma; Test Code AR0091330.

Commercial Uses: Besides being needed by the body, boron is used in industry. Boric acid has antiseptic, antifungal, and antiviral properties and for these reasons is applied as a water clarifier in swimming pool water treatment. Mild solutions of boric acid have been used as eye antiseptics.  Wiki: Boron   

Boron is also used in both radiation shielding, for nuclear reactivity control and as radiation shield in future manned interplanetary spacecraft. In the United States, 70% of the boron is used to strengthen glass and ceramics. Borax is used in various household laundry and cleaning products, including the "20 Mule Team Borax" laundry booster and "Boraxo" powdered hand soap and as a wood preservative. It is also used as an insecticide, notably against ants, fleas, and cockroaches. Boron adds strength to neodymium magnets, making these magnets lightweight and powerful.  Wiki: Boron  Borates are used as environmentally benign wood preservatives.

Boron acts as a natural food preservative within foods. Because boron helps diminish bacteria growth, it was a natural way to prevent crops from spoiling, so during World War I and II it was added to foods to prolong their freshness and reduce food pathogens when refrigeration wasn’t always possible. Axe: boron & health  

This summary section has been obtained from Dr. Last's article: "Borax is a naturally occurring mineral commonly mined from dried salt lakes, and is the source of other manufactured boron compounds. The main deposits are in California and Turkey. Chemical names are sodium tetraborate decahydrate, disodium tetraborate decahydrate, or simply sodium borate.  Borax is commonly sold as technical or agricultural grade with 99 to 99.5% minimum purity. Potential impurities consist of sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, bicarbonate, carbonate, sulphate and phosphate but not toxic or heavy metals. This grade includes the borax commonly used as household cleaner. Pharmaceutical grade is not noticeably purer or better. Borax is the sodium salt of the weak boric acid. Because sodium is more strongly alkaline, this makes a solution of borax strongly alkaline with a pH between 9 and 10 [pH 7 is neutral]. When ingested, it reacts with hydrochloric acid in the stomach to form boric acid and sodium chloride. The boron content of Borax is 11.3% while for boric acid it is 17.5% or about 50% higher. Ingested boron compounds are rapidly and nearly completely excreted in urine. Formerly boric acid was widely used as a preservative in foods but is now banned for this purpose in most countries."  Last: The arthritis cure conspiracy 2012

Conclusion:

We do not have all the information we need about boron and how it works in the body. A major reason is that most  researchers have used the medical-drug model to study the impact of boron on the body as a single isolated function. Instead, the human body works as an integrated whole function. Boron, like all nutrients, needs a different research paradigm design from the medical drug research; one that studies a nutrient on a co-factorial - whole body function basis. 

Boron is not a patentable compound, as it is found in nature. Since most drug companies provide money for drug research and not for health research, this discourages money for boron and health research. There is no money to be made from boron research and especially if drug companies would not make money from better health.  Mastromatteo: Health effects of boron 1994

The danger in using boron is not from using boron.  Rather it is from the medical-industrial complex blocking boron research and keeping the public uninformed. We need good research to further validate the research already done.

But as medical doctor Kunin points out: "...combination of orthomolecular and pharmaceutical research promises to open a new era of "miracle drugs." Boron is a versatile candidate to lead this revolution in nutraceutical medicine."  Kunin: Boron Ortho-mineral 2000

Boron is a magic bullet for health. It provides the spark that makes the whole body work. Boron is recognized as an essential trace mineral. In very small dosage, it has a powerful affect on many functions of the body. Boron is emerging as a crucial nutrient for minimizing joint inflammation and pain Hip Joint Pain Relief With Boron, supporting healthy bone mass and thus avoiding the scourge of osteoporosis that plagues older Americans today. Compelling new evidence indicates that boron also affects bone growth, promotes healthy joints, helps prevent prostate cancer, reduces risk of some cancers, improves cognitive function, and may offer powerful antioxidant protection. This little-known mineral should be a nutritional staple for all seeking to prevent chronic diseases and optimize their health. Recent research has found that not all boron formulations are equally effective. Boron in the available form of tetraborate fructoborate is the boron found in plants. This form is the same as found in humans, is very compatible in humans, is readily absorbed, is instantly useable and safe as a food or supplement. Boron takes about one to 8 weeks to become activated. Nielson: Boron - health update 2014  Life Ext Mag: Boron

This article summarizes the many functions of boron. The reader should not jump to the conclusion that boron can work on its own without the support of other nutrients. For example, boron would not be of much help if a person continues to eat bad junk foods that feed bad bacteria in the colon, that, in turn, incubate chronic diseases. It would be like shooting oneself in the foot!

References:

AlgaeCal, "The top boron-rich food sources,"  AlgaeCal: Best boron food sources

Arthtitis Institute, "Daily Supplements of Boron Reduce Pain from Osteoarthritis," 2012. Arthitis Institute: Boron daily relieves osteoarthritis 2012

Axe Josh, "Boron Uses — Boost Bone Density and Much More," Food & Medicine,  Axe: boron & health

Bakken Naomi A. and Curtiss D. Hunt, "Dietary Boron Decreases Peak Pancreatic In Situ Insulin Release in Chicks and Plasma Insulin Concentrations in Rats Regardless of Vitamin D or Magnesium Status," The Journal of Nutrition, November 2003,Volume 133, Issue 11, 1 Pages 3577–3583.  Bakken: Boron and insulin control in animals 2003

Basoglu Abdullah, Nuri Baspinar, Aliye Sagkan Ozturk and Pinar Peker Akalin, "Effects of Long-Term Boron Administrations on High-Energy Diet-Induced" Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 2011, Volume: 10, Issue: 12, Pages 1512-1515. Basoglu: Boron may prevent obesity 2011

"Boron," Examine.com, published on 11 July 2013," last updated on 14 June 2018,  Boron: examined 2018

Brentwich Z, et la., "The Art of Getting Well - Boron and Arthritis," Arthritis Trust of America, 1994.  Brentwich: Boron & Arthritis 1994

Devirian Tata A. & Stella L. Volpe, "The Physiological Effects of Dietary Boron," Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, Volume 43, 2003 - Issue 2, Pages 219-231 | Published online: 03 Jun 2010.  Divirian: Dietary boron 2003

Dogan Aysegul et la., "Relationship between blood boron concentration and body mass index," Metabolism, Volume 69, Aril 2017, pages 130-142. Dogan: Boron & obesity 2017 

Hasbahceci Mustafa, "Reverse Relationship Between Blood Boron Level and Body Mass Index in Humans: Does It Matter for Obesity?" Biological Trace Element Research, June 2013, Volume 153, Issue 1–3, pp 141–144.   Hasbahceci: Blood boron & BMI 2013

Health Canada, "ARCMustafa HIVED - Boron as a Medicinal Ingredient in Oral Natural Health Products," Natural Health Products Directorate, Health Canada, July 2007.  Health Canada: Boron in health products 2007

Hip Joint Pain Relief With Boron - No Pain Or Pain Medication At All, Stops Other Joint Pain,  Hip Joint Pain Relief With Boron

Hunt C.D., "Boron," Encyclopedia of Food Sciences and Nutrition (Second Edition), 2003.  Hunt: boron 2003

Kunin Richard A., "Boron: An Ortho-Mineral," Healthy.net, 2000.   Kunin: Boron Ortho-mineral 2000

Last Walter, "The Borax Conspiracy - How the arthritis cure has been stopped," Nexus, June-July, 2012.  Last: The arthritis cure conspiracy 2012

Life Extension magazine, "Boron," August 2006. Life Ext Mag: Boron

Lin Steven, "5 Boron Benefits that will Dramatically Improve Your Health," Dentist,  Lin: Boron improves dental health

Massie Harold R., "Effect od dietary boron on the afing process," Environmental Health Perspectives, Volume 102, Supplement 7, November 1994. Massie: Effect of boron on aging 1994

Mastromatteo E and F Sullivan, "Summary: International symposium on the health effects of boron and its compounds," Environ Health Perspect. November, 1994, sup 7, 139-141. Mastromatteo: Health effects of boron 1994

Morris Roy, "Most Arthritis & Osteoporosis is Preventable & Curable—and has been since 1968," DoTerra Advocate at doTERRA, September 11, 2017.   Morris: Curing arthritis

Mumby Keith Scott, "The story of boron - the arthritis miracle,"   Mamby: Boron-arthritis miracle

Naghii Samman S., "The role of boron in nutrition and metabolism," Prog Food Nutr Sci. 1993 Oct-Dec;17(4):331-49.   Naghii: Boron & Nutrition 1993

Newnham Rex E., "Essentiality of Boron for Healthy Bones and Joints," Environmental Health Perspectives, Volume 102, Supplement 7, November 1994.   Newnham: Boron for healthy joints 1994

Nielsen Forrest H., "Update on human health effects of boron," Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 28, Issue 4, October 2014, Pages 383-387.  Nielson: Boron - health update 2014

Nielsen Forrest H., and Susan L. Meacham, "Growing Evidence for Human Health Benefits of Boron," Journal of Evidence-Based Complementary & Alternative Medicine, 2011 16(3) 169-180.   Nielsen: Born health benefits 2011

Penland James G., "Dietary Boron, Brain Function, and Cognitive Performance," Environmental Health Perspectives, Volume 102, Supplement 7, November 1994.  Penland: Boron & brain function 1994

Pizzorno Lara, "Nothing Boring About Boron," Integrative medicine (Encinitas, Calif.), 2016, 14. 35-48.  Pizzorno: Boron not boring 2016

Pradhan Deepti, "Tackling joint pains - the underappreciated role of boron," Huffington Post, November 10, 2017.  Pradhan: boron minimizes pain in joints 2016

Price Charles T., Joshua R. Langford and Frank A. Liporace, "Essential Nutrients for Bone Health and a Review of their Availability in the Average North American Diet," Open Orthop J., 2012, 6, 1143-149.  Price: Essential nutrients 2012

Sorochan Walter, "Feeling bad but not real sick -- may be good," Freegrab.net, May 11, 2013.   Sorochan: Herxheimer Reaction 2013

Travers Richard L. , George C. Rennie & Rex E. Newnham, "Boron and Arthritis: The Results of a Double-blind Pilot Study," Journal of Nutritional Medicine, Volume 1, 1990 - Issue 2, online since July 13, 2009, Pages 127-132.  Travers: Boron-arthritis double blind study 1990

WebMD, "Boron", WebMD: Boron

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