Civil Disobedience
By Walter Sorochan
Posted May 20, 2011 updated October 24, 2011    Disclaimer

Recent tragedies and civil disobediences since 2009, such as the Tucson Arizona shootings, Weisberg: Tucson Tragedy and Oklahoma City bombing in 1995,  Tea Party disruptions in political rallies,  the titillations of Glenn Beck and Sarah Palin to their audiences with hints of justified violence, including frequent reminders that they are armed and dangerous, the rude mannerism at political rallies and the dysfunctional political system collectively prompted this article.  The  most recent 2011 "Occupy Wallstreet" and "99% vs 1%" marches throughout the world are rebellions by people against political-monetary policies of countries. Marshall: occupy wallstreet   The author, Sorochan, remains an impartial messenger of the contents of this article. 

Perhaps the most famous civil unrest was the hunger strike staged by Mahatma Gandi in India in 1930 -1945. He pioneered satyagraha, a resistance to tyranny through mass civil resistance.  Gandhi famously led his followers in the Non-cooperation movement that protested the British-imposed salt tax with the 400 km (240 mi) Dandi Salt March in 1930. He launched hunger strikes during the Quit India Movement in 1942, demanding immediate independence for India. Although the Quit India movement had moderate success in its objective, the ruthless suppression of the movement brought order to India by the end of 1943. At the end of the war, the British gave clear sovereign power to Indian.

In the 1960's, Martin Luther King used nonviolent methods [ civil unrest ], following the teachings of Mahatma Gandhi, as a way to give civic equal justice to colored persons in the United States.

There is a long, long list of civil unrest and social tragedies, from 1676 to 2011, in the United States. Wiki: list of unrests  The events of unrest do not reflect a stable society!  So although we were all shocked by the shooting of Representative Gabrielle Giffords and others on January 8, 2011, the past history of unrest should be a concern about the nature of politics, the issue to bear arms and business as usual in this country.    

The Boston Tea Party

So how does all this unrest tie in with government, politics and so on in this country?

The classic treatise on public unrest is Henry David Thoreau's "On the Duty of Civil Disobedience," which states that when a person's conscience and the laws clash, that person must follow his or her conscience. The stress on personal conscience and on the need to act now rather than to wait for legal change are recurring elements in civil disobedience movements. The U.S. Bill of Rights asserts that the authority of a government is derived from the consent of the governed, and whenever any form of government becomes destructive, it is the right and duty of the people to alter or abolish it.

Henry Thoreau's writings about civil disobedience and disagreeing on how government functions may help you to understand the feelings of people about the actions some take to express their displeasures.  This is not to say that the actions expressing their anger and displeasure are proper or right!  

Hate America terrorism spread with the destruction of the Twin Tower buildings in New York on September 11, 2001.  The USA has been supposedly fighting terrorism in foreign soils of Iraq and Afghanistan.  These wars should be linked to social unrest of people in other middle east countries.  Just during 2011, social-economic-political unrest erupted in Egypt, Libya, Algeria, Bahrain, Yemen, Iran, and Jordan.  Civil unrest in many countries has erupted into numerous civil wars that are disrupting not just the flow of oil but the stability of lives of millions of people in this middle east region.

Civic unrest Summary cited from Wikipedia

"Thoreau asserted in 1849 that because governments are typically more harmful than helpful, they therefore cannot be justified. Democracy is no cure for this, as majorities simply by virtue of being majorities do not also gain the virtues of wisdom and justice. The judgment of an individual's conscience is not necessarily inferior to the decisions of a political body or majority, and so "[i]t is not desirable to cultivate a respect for the law, so much as for the right. The only obligation which I have a right to assume is to do at any time what I think right... Law never made men a whit more just; and, by means of their respect for it, even the well-disposed are daily made the agents of injustice."[5] He adds, "I cannot for an instant recognize as my government [that] which is the slave's government also."[6]

The government, according to Thoreau, is not just a little corrupt or unjust in the course of doing its otherwise-important work, but in fact the government is primarily an agent of corruption and injustice. Because of this, it is "not too soon for honest men to rebel and revolutionize."[7]

Political philosophers have counseled caution about revolution because the upheaval of revolution typically causes a lot of expense and suffering. Thoreau contends that such a cost/benefit analysis is inappropriate when the government is actively facilitating an injustice as extreme as slavery. Such a fundamental immorality justifies any difficulty or expense to bring to an end. "This people must cease to hold slaves, and to make war on Mexico, though it cost them their existence as a people."[8]

Thoreau tells his audience that they cannot blame this problem solely on pro-slavery Southern politicians, but must put the blame on those in, for instance, Massachusetts, "who are more interested in commerce and agriculture than they are in humanity, and are not prepared to do justice to the slave and to Mexico, cost what it may... There are thousands who are in opinion opposed to slavery and to the war, who yet in effect do nothing to put an end to them."[9] (See also: Thoreau's Slavery in Massachusetts which also advances this argument.)

He exhorts people not to just wait passively for an opportunity to vote for justice, because voting for justice is as ineffective as wishing for justice; what you need to do is to actually be just. This is not to say that you have an obligation to devote your life to fighting for justice, but you do have an obligation not to commit injustice and not to give injustice your practical support.

Paying taxes is one way in which otherwise well-meaning people collaborate in injustice. People who proclaim that the war in Mexico is wrong and that it is wrong to enforce slavery contradict themselves if they fund both things by paying taxes. Thoreau points out that the same people who applaud soldiers for refusing to fight an unjust war are not themselves willing to refuse to fund the government that started the war.

In a constitutional republic like the United States, people often think that the proper response to an unjust law is to try to use the political process to change the law, but to obey and respect the law until it is changed. But if the law is itself clearly unjust, and the lawmaking process is not designed to quickly obliterate such unjust laws, then Thoreau says the law deserves no respect and it should be broken. In the case of the United States, the Constitution itself enshrines the institution of slavery, and therefore falls under this condemnation. Abolitionists, in Thoreau's opinion, should completely withdraw their support of the government and stop paying taxes, even if this means courting imprisonment.

Under a government which imprisons any unjustly, the true place for a just man is also a prison.… where the State places those who are not with her, but against her,– the only house in a slave State in which a free man can abide with honor.… Cast your whole vote, not a strip of paper merely, but your whole influence. A minority is powerless while it conforms to the majority; it is not even a minority then; but it is irresistible when it clogs by its whole weight. If the alternative is to keep all just men in prison, or give up war and slavery, the State will not hesitate which to choose. If a thousand men were not to pay their tax bills this year, that would not be a violent and bloody measure, as it would be to pay them, and enable the State to commit violence and shed innocent blood. This is, in fact, the definition of a peaceable revolution, if any such is possible.[10]

Because the government will retaliate, Thoreau says he prefers living simply because he therefore has less to lose. "I can afford to refuse allegiance to Massachusetts…. It costs me less in every sense to incur the penalty of disobedience to the State than it would to obey. I should feel as if I were worth less in that case."[11]

He was briefly imprisoned for refusing to pay the poll tax, but even in jail felt freer than the people outside. He considered it an interesting experience and came out of it with a new perspective on his relationship to the government and its citizens. (He was released the next day when "someone interfered, and paid that tax.")[12]

Thoreau said he was willing to pay the highway tax, which went to pay for something of benefit to his neighbors, but that he was opposed to taxes that went to support the government itself—even if he could not tell if his particular contribution would eventually be spent on an unjust project or a beneficial one. "I simply wish to refuse allegiance to the State, to withdraw and stand aloof from it effectually."[13]

Because government is man-made, not an element of nature or an act of God, Thoreau hoped that its makers could be reasoned with. As governments go, he felt, the U.S. government, with all its faults, was not the worst and even had some admirable qualities. But he felt we could and should insist on better. "The progress from an absolute to a limited monarchy, from a limited monarchy to a democracy, is a progress toward a true respect for the individual.… Is a democracy, such as we know it, the last improvement possible in government? Is it not possible to take a step further towards recognizing and organizing the rights of man? There will never be a really free and enlightened State until the State comes to recognize the individual as a higher and independent power, from which all its own power and authority are derived, and treats him accordingly."[14]

"That government is best which governs least." An aphorism sometimes attributed to either Thomas Jefferson or Thomas Paine, "That government is best which governs least", actually was first found in this essay.[15] Thoreau was paraphrasing the motto of The United States Magazine and Democratic Review: "The best government is that which governs least."  Wiki: Thoreau Civil disobedience

Civil Disobedience" originated as a Concord Lyceum lecture delivered on January 26, 1848. It was published as "Resistance to Civil Government," in May of 1849, in Elizabeth Peabody's Aesthetic Papers, a short-lived periodical that never managed a second issue. The modern title comes from A Yankee in Canada, with Anti-Slavery and Reform Papers, an 1866 collection of Thoreau's work. It's not known if Thoreau ever used the term "civil disobedience."


Marshall Andrew Gavin, "Against the Institution: A Warning for ‘Occupy Wall Street’ Andrew Gavin Marshall, October 3, 2011.   Marshall: occupy wallstreet

Thoreau Henry David, "Civil Disobedience," Whiskey & Gunpowder, December 31, 2009 (originally published 1849)   Thoreau: Civil Disobedience Part 1

Thoreau Henry David, "Civil Disobedience," Whiskey & Gunpowder, December 31, 2009 (originally published 1849)   Thoreau: Civil Disobedience Part 2

Thoreau Henry David, "Civil Disobedience," Whiskey & Gunpowder, December 31, 2009 (originally published 1849)   Thoreau: Civil Disobedience Part 3

A Calliope Fact Sheet, "Thoreau, Civil Disobedience, and the Underground Railroad,"  Calliope Film Resources. "Thoreau, Civil Disobedience and the Underground Railroad." Copyright 2001 CFR. visited January 10, 2011.   Fact sheet: Underground Railroad

Weisberg Jacob, The Tea Party and the Tucson Tragedy," MSN Slate, January 10, 2011.  Weisberg: Tucson Tragedy   How anti-government, pro-gun, xenophobic populism made the Giffords shooting more likely.

Wikipedia,"List of incidents of civil unrest in the United States,"  Wiki: list of unrests

Wikipedia, "Civil Unrest"  Wiki: Thoreau Civil disobedience

References for Wikipedia summary

    1.^ Thoreau, H. D. letter to R. W. Emerson 23 February 1848
    2.^ (¶18)
    333.^ Rosenwald, Lawrence The Theory, Practice & Influence of Thoreau's Civil Disobedience quoting Gandhi, M. K. Non-Violent Resistance pp. 3-4 and 14
    4.^ Levin. pg 29.
    5.^ (¶4)
    6.^ (¶7)
    7.^ (¶8)
    8.^ (¶9)
    9.^ (¶10)
    10.^ (¶22)
    11.^ (¶24)
    12.^ (¶33)
    13.^ (¶36)
    14.^ (¶46)
    15.^ Spurious Quotes, Thomas Jefferson Library, accessed March 22, 2008
    16.^ Respectfully Quoted: A Dictionary of Quotations. 1989,, accessed April 4, 2006/il>
    17.^ Gandhi, M. K. "Duty of Disobeying Laws" Indian Opinion 7 September and 14 September 1907/il>
    18.^ Gandhi, M. K. "For Passive Resisters" Indian Opinion 26 October 1907
    19.^ King, M. L. Morehouse College (Chapter 2 of The Autobiography of Martin Luther King, Jr.)
    20.^ Buber, Martin Man's Duty As Man from Thoreau in Our Season University of Massachusetts Press (1962) p. 19
    21.^ Maynard, W. Barksdale, Walden Pond: A History. Oxford University Press, 2005.(pg.265)

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