By Walter Sorochan
Posted: August 18, 2013. Disclaimer The information presented here is for informative and educational purposes only and is not intended as curative or prescriptive advice.
[ Everything you need to know as a consumer about krill - fish oils in one central location ]
Eating salmon is touted as good for your health due to the high omega-3 oils that lower your chances of a heart attack. New research has discovered that krill has much higher amount of omega-3 fats than salmon [ not farm raised ]. Indeed, it is Omega-3 oil and ocean fish that are good for us while omega-6 rich processed foods, such as crackers, cookies and corn-fed beef, that are bad for us if we eat too much of them. In spite of the population today consuming at least 20 times more omega-6s than omega-3s Wiki: omega-3 fatty acids , omega-3 sales are brisk.
This health researcher received an e-mail advertisement trying to sell him a super omega oil supplement. The e-mail claimed that super omega was better than any other fish oil! This aroused this researcher's curiosity about fish oil, including "super mega oil," omega-3 and krill. What is the best fish oil supplement?
Benefits of Krill - fish oil: There is overwhelming evidence that a daily dose of krill oil and/or omega-3 fatty acids can improve and protect you from many disabling diseases and disorders. These benefits may include: NIH: Omega-3 & health 2005 Oz: omega-3 benefits 2010 Deutsch: Krill oil anti-inflammatory 2007 U Maryland: EPA overview 2013 WebMD: DHA overview Consumer Reports: Krill vs fish oils 2012 Horrocks: DHA benefits 1999 Maki: Krill oil benefits 2009 Maroon: pain relief fish oils 2010 Simopoulos: Omega-3 vs inflammation 2002 Wong: Krill oil benefits 2013 Wiki: DHA Wiki fish oil OSU: review fish oil studies 2012
Documentation supporting the above benefits is weak! This may be because the research control designs were flawed; although the researchers themselves may not be aware of this. For example: researchers assumed that their research design could focus on one nutrient and ignore the impact that other nutrients [ co-factors ] could have in helping the principal nutrient function [ bioavailability ]. Had researchers accounted for co-factor variables, their flawed research outcome would have been entirely different and they would have had different health outcomes!
Another major reason that the documentation may be weak is that double-blind design studies are time consuming and very expensive [ $ 300,000,000 per study ] to carry out. Most such expensive studies are conducted by pharmaceutical companies with anticipation of making huge profits. Unfortunately, many nutrients like krill oil occur naturally in mother nature and cannot be exclusively patented nor copyrighted. Hence, no profit - no research in the free enterprise system! In such circumstances, we need the help from the federal government to conduct independent research on the validity of health benefits from fish and krill oils; but such funding is not forthcoming.
Super mega oil? This is a 'catch a buyer' advertizing gimmick! It may be a mixture of omega-3 and krill oils that have a high concentration of EPA, DHA, and other nutrients such as vitamin E. This label product is misleading and does not necessarily mean that this is a good or better supplement.
Biomagnification: Fish do not actually produce omega-3 fatty acids, but instead accumulate them by consuming either microalgae or prey fish that have accumulated omega-3 fatty acids, together with a high quantity of antioxidants such as iodide and selenium, from microalgae, where these antioxidants are able to protect the fragile polyunsaturated lipids from peroxidation. Fatty predatory fish like sharks, swordfish, tilefish, salmon and albacore tuna may be high in omega-3 fatty acids, but due to their position at the top of the food chain, these species can also accumulate toxic substances through biomagnification. Wiki fish oil
What is omega-3? There are 3 basic forms of omega-3: Oz: omega-3 benefits 2010
Key health benefits of including omega-3 fatty acids in your diet: Kim: Omega-3 sense
Omega-3 fatty acids are called essential fatty acids because your body cannot synthesize them from other nutrients; you must obtain them from your foods such as fish, and supplements such as krill and fish oil supplements.
Krill are tiny crustaceans [ species Euphausia superba, approximately, 1 to 6 centimeters long ] similar in appearance to small pink-red colored shrimps but found in the Arctic and Antarctic oceans. The algae that krill eat produces the bright red pigment astaxanthin that gives krill and other crustaceans such as lobster and shrimp their reddish-pink color. In Norwegian, the word "krill" means "whale food." Baleen whales, mantas, penguins and whale sharks primarily eat krill. People extract the oil from krill, place it in capsules, and use it as a supplement or for medicine.
Ratio omega-3 to omega-6: The lack of a universal standard ratio for omega-3 : omega-6 has evolved controversy about what a beneficial health ratio should be. Today, the usual diet in industrial countries contains much less omega-3 fatty acids than the diet of a century ago. The diet from a century ago had much less omega-3 than the diet of early hunter-gatherers. We can also look at the ratio of omega-3 to omega-6 in comparisons of their diets. Today we tend to consume far too many Omega-6 fatty acids from meat, dairy produce and vegetable oils such as safflower, sunflower, corn, sesame and groundnut oil. These changes have been accompanied by increased rates of many diseases – the so-called diseases of civilization – that involve inflammatory processes. There is now very strong evidence that several of these diseases are ameliorated by increasing dietary omega-3, and good evidence for many others. There is also more preliminary evidence showing that dietary omega-3 can ease symptoms in several psychiatric disorders. "Omega−6 and omega−3 need to be consumed in a balanced proportion; healthy ratios of omega−6:omega−3, according to some authors, range from 1:1 to 1:4 (an individual needs more omega−3 than omega−6). Other authors believe that ratio 4:1 (when the amount of omega-6 is only 4 times greater than that of omega-3) is already healthy." Wiki: omega-3 fatty acids
If you are eating cold-sea salmon one or two times a week, you probably do not need to supplement with omega-3 fatty oils.
The table below illustrates the naturally occurring ratios of the two omegas in natural and processed foods. It is interesting to note that fresh salmon from cold water, fresh cod and flax seeds have omega ratios that anthropologists relate to healthy diets many centuries ago.
Krill oil is a mixture of fatty acids high in EPA and DHA in the form of phospholipids, mostly as Phosphatidylcholine; this allows krill oil to be better absorbed than fish oil.
Don’t confuse unsaturated fatty acids DHA with EPA. They are both in fish oil, but they are not the same. DHA can be converted into EPA in the human body.
Superba Krill Oil from Aker Biomarine U-Tube 4. 08 mns
HOW KRILL WORKS: Krill oil contains fatty acids similar to fish oil. Krill oil contains higher amounts of astaxanthin than fish oil. These fats are thought to be beneficial fats that decrease swelling, lower cholesterol, and make blood platelets less sticky. When blood platelets are less sticky they are less likely to form clots.
Astaxanthin is an antioxidant that crosses the blood-brain barrier, where it could theoretically protect the eye, brain and central nervous system from free radical damage. [ Antioxidants protect our body cells from the damage of free radicals by removing them. Free radicals are unstable substances that are thought to contribute to certain chronic diseases. ] Wong: Krill oil benefits 2013
Krill oil vs fish oil: There is a lot of debate about the effectiveness of krill oil as opposed to fish oil due to the levels of EPA and DHA. Compared to fish oil, krill oil offers better bioavailability [ That is, the absorption of krill-fish oil from the small intestine into the blood stream, as well as utilization by other body cells. ] and is more resistant to rancidity. It also doesn't have any fishy aftertaste or side effects even at high dosages. But perhaps topping the list of differences is its being free from mercury contamination, which may be found in most fish and seafood from the lakes, rivers, streams and oceans. Krill is harvested wild in the cold, unpolluted seas surrounding Antarctica and is thus usually free from mercury and heavy metals. Consumer Reports: Krill vs fish oils 2012
There are differences between omega-3 found in both fish-oil and krill-oil supplements that supply the healthful omega-3 fatty acids DHA and EPA. Krill oil comes from small crustaceans, not fatty fish, and typically contains more EPA than fish. And unlike conventional fish-oil pills, krill oil’s omega-3s are linked to an antioxidant and other potentially beneficial substances called phospholipids, which are also found in the brain and other human cell walls. Consumer Reports: Krill vs fish oils 2012 Phospholipids on cell walls allow the krill oil to be absorbed much faster and in greater quantities than fish oil.
Omega fatty oils videos Dr Oz: U-Tube video information about omega-3 and omega-6; fish and krill oils:
Supplement Product Purity:
Krill-fish oil buyers need to be aware that many fish and krill oil supplements may be contaminated with PCBs, vitamin E and/or comingled with oils and even mislabed. ConsumerLab: fish oil PCB contamination 2012
There are many problems with modern cod liver oil but one of the primary ones is that there is no standard definition of what constitutes cod liver oil. Manufacturers use processes that remove natural occurring vitamin A:D ratio and then add or subtract as much vitamin A or D as they see fit. This is adds controversy about the safety of current cod liver oil supplements as well as krill and fish oils. Mercola: Cod liver oil safety 2008 Gurd: Cod liver oil contro 2009 Look for a ratio balance for vitamin A:D to be 1:5-10 and EPA:DHA ratio to be approximately 1:2.
A private laboratory, ConsumerLab, tested numerous commercial supplements of fish oil, krill oil, algal oil, and calamari oil. Their finding revealed quality problems with 11 out of 35 of these omega-3 fatty acid supplements selected for review. You can find more information at Consumer Lab Report 2013
Cost & best buy: On a more positive note, ConsumerLab.com found many high quality products -- ones that passed all tests. It identified those with the best prices for fish and krill oil and found that you can get several hundred milligrams of EPA and DHA [ a typical daily dose is 300 mg to 500 mg ] for just a few cents a day from top-rated products. Consumer Lab Report 2013 For example, ConsumerLab recommended Swanson Krill oil supplements because of the low cost, freshness, Antarctic purity, quality and enteric-coating performance of the krill oil supplement. Ofcourse you are free to shop for other ConsumerLab.com recommended marketers of supplements.
Best sources for Omega-3 fatty acids:
1. Best source is from food: U.S. News has written about: 8 easy ways to load up on omega-3s from food sources. Good sources of alpha-linolenic acid [ALA] are leafy green vegetables, nuts, and vegetable oils such as canola, soy, and especially flaxseed. Good sources of EPA and DHA are fish like cold water arctic salmon [not pond grown ] and sardines. Linolenic Acid [LA] is found in many foods, including meat, vegetable oils [ e.g., safflower, sunflower, corn, soy ], and processed foods made with these oils. Martinsen: wrong omega-3 2013
If you are like most persons who do not get enough omega-3 from the food they eat, then you need to consider omega-3 supplements.
2. Second best source may be Cod liver oil: as best liquid omega-3 form supplement because it has all the natural co-factor [helper] nutrients [ e.g. vitamins A, D, C, E, foliate, etc., ] in the proper ratio amounts, as well as ALA, DHA and EPA and it is inexpensive. Natural liquid fish oils provide as much EPA and DHA as concentrated omega-3 products. But since cod liver oil can become rancid and spoil, order small quantities for short periods of time and store in refrigerator.
But a word of caution: There are many problems with modern cod liver oil and one of the primary ones is that there is no standard definition of what constitutes cod liver oil. Manufacturers use processes that remove natural occurring vitamin A:D ratio and then add or subtract as much vitamin A or D as they see fit. This is adds controversy about the safety of current cod liver oil supplements. Mercola: Cod liver oil safety 2008 Gurd: Cod liver oil contro 2009 Look for a ratio balance for vitamin A:D to be 1:5-10 and EPA:DHA ratio to be approximately 1:2.
3. Krill oil supplement: This is the third best option, because Phospholipids on human cell walls allows the krill oil to be absorbed much faster and in greater quantities than fish oil. Krill oil has omega-3 fatty acids, is significantly better utilized than fish oil. But it has also been synthesized and natural co-factor nutrients have probably been removed or destroyed.
4. Fish oil omega-3 is the fourth good option as a supplement. But be aware of undisclosed contaminants and fatty acid ratios.
Do your homework: Read the label and ask the trusted seller for evidence:
Another Caution: When comparing different omega-3 supplements, the first thing you want to do is check the amount of EPA and DHA on the label. The EPA:DHA ratio should be 2:1. A label listing a combined EPA+DHA per 1000 mg is misleading. A supplement with a higher percentage of EPA and DHA will provide more benefit per pill than one with a lower percentage. After reviewing numerous research, the missing link is the unknown and unreliable ratio amount of vitamin A:D as well as unlisted other co-factor nutrients.
Conclusion: This author had great expectations of finding information to help all of us make good decisions about purchasing and using omega-3 fatty acid supplements. My expectations have been tempered with what I found out. In this free market consumer world, it is hard to find safe, good supplements. Who do you believe?
There are many sellers of Omega-3 fatty acid supplements. There are no fatty acid oil standards and you should expect manufacturers to formulate fish-krill oils that may be bad and good. Hopefully you have enough information to help you make some good buy decisions. Read the labels and ask questions! You may need to experiment with several omega-3 brands and dosage over several months before finding one that works best for you. Keep in mind that it may take several months for the omega-3 supplement you are taking to kick in and activate the health benefits you are anticipating!
For more health information: Click here
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Aker Biomarine, "Superba™ Krill Oil NDI Notification Accepted by FDA (24.05.11)." Aker Biomarine Krill oil company Info "Aker BioMarine is a Norwegian fishing and biotech company providing krill products through a fully documented and secured catch and process chain. Based in Oslo, Aker BioMarine is part of the Aker Group The company also created ECO-HARVESTING™ or Eco-Harvesting™. Aker BioMarine was established as an independent enterprise in 2006."
Request for information:
Baldauf Sarah, "Fish Oil Supplements, EPA, DHA, and ALA: Does Your Omega-3 Source Matter?" US News Health, April 8, 2009. Baldauf: choice controversies 2009 [ How to choose between fish and nuts—or between fish oil capsules and vegetarian omega-3 pills. ]
Bunea R., El Farrah K, Deutsch L., Evaluation of the effects of Neptune Krill Oil on the clinical course of hyperlipidemia. Altern Med Rev., 2004, 9.4: 420-428. Buena: krill oil lowers cholesterol 2004
"CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study demonstrate within high levels of confidence that krill oil is effective for the management of hyperlipidemia by significantly reducing total cholesterol, LDL, and triglycerides, and increasing HDL levels. At lower and equal doses, krill oil was significantly more effective than fish oil for the reduction of glucose, triglycerides, and LDL levels."
Clark WF, Kortas C, Heidenheim AP, Garland J, Spanner E, Parbtani A., "Flaxseed in lupus nephritis: a two-year nonplacebo-controlled crossover study," Am Coll Nutr., 2001, 20(2 Suppl):143-148. Clark: lupus flaxseed 2001
Coad Tanya Louise, "The EPA/DHA Ratio in Fish Oil," Livestrong.com, July 18, 2011 Coad:EPA/DHA Ratio 2011
ConsumerLab.com, "CONSUMERLAB.COM FINDS FISH OIL SUPPLEMENTS FREE OF MERCURY, BUT 30% LACKING IN KEY INGREDIENT â€” Test Results of Omega-3 Fatty Acid (EPA and DHA) Products Released Today â€,” ConsumerLab: Report EPA & DHA 2001
ConsumerLab.com, "Contamination and Other Problems Found in Fish Oil Supplements -- Large Review by ConsumerLab.com Reveals Excessive PCBs or Mislabeling in Over 30% of Omega-3 Supplements â€“ August 22, 2012. ConsumerLab: fish oil PCB contamination 2012 "In the ConsumerLab.com product review, fish oil and omega-3 supplements were tested for freshness, purity, quality and enteric-coating performance. "
ConsumerLab.com, "Product Review: Fish Oil and Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplements Review (Including Krill, Algae, and Calamari Oil," July 14, 2013. Consumer Lab Report 2013 "In the ConsumerLab.com product review, fish oil and omega-3 supplements were tested for freshness, purity, quality and enteric-coating performance. "
Consumer Reports, "Are krill-oil pills as good as fish oil? Both supply omega 3s, but there are differences," Consumer Reports on Health: June, 2012. ConsConsumer Reports: Krill vs fish oils 2012
Deutsch L. ,Evaluation of the effect of Neptune Krill Oil on chronic inflammation and arthritic symptoms. J Am Coll Nutr., 2007, 26.1: 39-48. Deutsch: Krill oil anti-inflammatory 2007
"CONCLUSION: The results of the present study clearly indicate that NKO at a daily dose of 300 mg significantly inhibits inflammation and reduces arthritic symptoms within a short treatment period of 7 and 14 days. "
Duffy EM, GK Meenagh, SA McMillan, JJ Strain, BM Hannigan and AL Bell, "The clinical effect of dietary supplementation with omega-3 fish oils and/or copper in systemic lupus erythematosus" The Journal of Rheumatology, (2004, 31 (8): 1551–1556. Duffy: lupus & omega-3 2004
Dr Oz, "Daily Dose: Omega-3," The Dr. Oz Show, June 03, 2010. Oz: omega-3 benefits 2010
Gurd Vreni, "The cod liver oil controversy," Nutrition and Life, January 17, 2009. Gurd: Cod liver oil contro 2009
Horrocks Lloyd A., & Young K. Yeo, " Health benefits of Docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]," Pharmacological Research, September, 1999, Volume 40, Issue 3, Pages 211–225. Horrocks: DHA benefits 1999
Kim Ben, "Making Sense of Omega-3 Fatty Acids," Kim: Omega-3 sense
Kim Hee-Yong, "Biochemical and Biological Functions of Docosahexaenoic Acid in the Nervous System: Modulation by Ethanol," Chem Phys Lipids. May, 2008, 153(1): 34–46. Kim:DHA biochemistry 2008
"The research aim of our laboratory has been to elucidate the biochemical and biological mechanisms supporting the need for this particular fatty acid in the central nervous system. Numerous studies have indicated that DHA is essential for proper neuronal and retinal functions. Dietary supplementation of DHA during infancy has been shown to improve mental development in humans."
King Michael W., "Omega-3 & omega-6 fatty acid synthesis, metabolism & functions," February 9, 2013. King: Omega-3 synthesis functions 2013
"Feb 9, 2013 - The omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid page provides a detailed description of the structure, synthesis, metabolism and functions of these fatty acids. Most of the omega-6 PUFAs consumed in the diet are from vegetable oils such as soybean oil, corn oil, borage oil, and acai berry and consist of linoleic acid. Linoleic acid is converted to arachidonic acid. The anti-inflammatory actions of omega-3 polysaturated fatty acids [UFAs ] can exert potent insulin sensitizing effects.
Kyle D. J., E. Schaefer, G. Patton, A. Beiser, "Low serum docosahexaenoic acid is a significant risk factor for alzheimer’s dementia," Lipids, 1999, Volume 34, Issue 1 Supplement, p S245. Kyle: DHA & Alzheimers 1999
Maki KC, Reeves MS, Farmer M, Griinari M, Berge K, Vik H, Hubacher R, Rains TM, "Krill oil supplementation increases plasma concentrations of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in overweight and obese men and women," Nutr Res., September 29, 2009, (9):609-15. Maki: Krill oil benefits 2009
"In conclusion, 4 weeks of krill oil supplementation increased plasma EPA and DHA and was well tolerated, with no indication of adverse effects on safety parameters.
Mercola Joseph, "Important Cod Liver Oil Update," Mercola.com, December 23, 2008. Mercola: Cod liver oil safety 2008
Maroon Joseph, MD, and Jeff Bost, Fish Oil: BOOK: The Natural Anti-Inflammatory, Basic Health Publications, Inc., 2006.
"The book focuses on the many benefits of fish oil supplements scientifically documented in over 900 clinical studies in treating such conditions as arthritis, spine pain, heart and vascular disease, depression and even very promising research on Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s Diseases. The book explains the basic process of inflammation and the factors that cause inflammation to be a chronic condition."
Maroon Joseph C., Jeffrey W. Bost, and Adara Maroon, "Natural anti-inflammatory agents for pain relief," Surg Neurol Int., December 13, 2010. Maroon: pain relief fish oils 2010
"A recent study of 250 patients with cervical and lumbar disc disease, who were taking NSAIDs, revealed that 59% could substitute fish oil supplements as a natural anti-inflammatory agent for the NSAIDs."
Martinsen Bo, "7 Reasons Why the Omega-3 Industry is on the Wrong Track," The Omega3 Innovations Blog, 2013. Martinsen: wrong omega-3 2013
National Institutes of Health, "Omega-3 fatty acids and health," Office of Dietary Supplement." Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet. October 28, 2005. NIH: Omega-3 & health 2005 "This document summarizes the results of eight evidence-based reviews on the effects of omega-3 fatty acids from food or dietary-supplement sources for the prevention and treatment of several diseases. "October 28, 2005
Omega-3 Index Omega-3 index test "The omega-3 index is an indicator of the amount of EPA and DHA relative to the amount of phospholipid fatty acids present in the individual’s sample. It can be used as an indicator of risk for SCD and non-fatal cardiovascular events and as a therapeutic target. The index can also be used to assess patient compliance with omega-3 therapy and/or success or failure of such therapy (relative to the target index)." There are many laboratories offering this test analysis.
Oregon State University, "Analysis of fish oil studies finds that omega-3 fatty acids still matter," November 28, 2012. OSU: review fish oil studies 2012
Peet Malcolm, Jan Brind, C.N. Ramchand, Sandeep Shah, G.K. Vankar, "Two double-blind placebo-controlled pilot studies of eicosapentaenoic acid in the treatment of schizophrenia," Schizophrenia Research, May 9, 2000, Volume 49, Issue 3 , Pages 243-251. Peet: EPA schizophrenia treats 2000
"Patients taking EPA had significantly lower scores on the PANSS rating scale by the end of the study. It is concluded that EPA may represent a new treatment approach to schizophrenia, and this requires investigation by large-scale placebo-controlled trials.";
Press Rachael, "The Omega-3 Fatty Acid Composition and Cost Analysis of Fish Oil Supplements: Fishing for the Best Deals," Department of Human Nutrition, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA. June, 2011. Press: cost supplement comparisons 2011
Reinagel Monica, Fish oil vs Krill," Quick and Dirty Tips, February 21, 2012. Reinagel:omega-3 compasisons 2012
Schaefer Ernst J., and others, "Plasma Phosphatidylcholine Docosahexaenoic Acid Content and Risk of Dementia and Alzheimer Disease The Framingham Heart Study," JAMA Neurology, November 2006, Vol 63, No. 11. Schaefer: DHA & dementia 2006
Sears Barry, "What Are the Real Differences Between EPA and DHA?" In the Zone, April 1, 2012. Sears: EPA-DHA diffrences 2012
Simopoulos, A. P. . "Omega-3 fatty acids in inflammation and autoimmune diseases." J Am Coll Nutr., 2002, 21(6): 495-505. Simopoulos: Omega-3 vs inflammation 2002
" Among the fatty acids, it is the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) which possess the most potent mmunomodulatory activities, and among the omega-3 PUFA, those from fish oil-eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)--are more biologically potent than alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). Some of the effects of omega-3 PUFA are brought about by modulation of the amount and types of eicosanoids made, and other effects are elicited by eicosanoid-independent mechanisms, including actions upon intracellular signaling pathways, transcription factor activity and gene expression. Animal experiments and clinical intervention studies indicate that omega-3 fatty acids have anti-inflammatory properties and, therefore, might be useful in the management of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Coronary heart disease, major depression, aging and cancer are characterized by an increased level of interleukin 1 (IL-1), a proinflammatory cytokine. Similarly, arthritis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis and lupus erythematosis are autoimmune diseases characterized by a high level of IL-1 and the proinflammatory leukotriene LTB(4) produced by omega-6 fatty acids. There have been a number of clinical trials assessing the benefits of dietary supplementation with fish oils in several inflammatory and autoimmune diseases in humans, including rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, psoriasis, lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis and migraine headaches. Many of the placebo-controlled trials of fish oil in chronic inflammatory diseases reveal significant benefit, including decreased disease activity and a lowered use of anti-inflammatory drugs."
University of Maryland Medical Center, "Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) Overview," updated: May 31, 2013. U Maryland: EPA overview 2013
Viva Labs, "Krill Oil – Behind The Curtain." Viva Labs: Krill oil info
Walton AJ, Snaith ML, Locniskar M, Cumberland AG, Morrow WJ, Isenberg DA., "Dietary fish oil and the severity of symptoms in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus," Ann Rheum Dis., July, 1991, 50(7):463-6. Walton lupus & fish oil 1991
"A double-blind, placebo-controlled study indicates that fish oil supplements in the amount of 3 grams per day may benefit patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). "
WebMD, "DHA [DOCOSAHEXAENOIC ACID] Overview Information." WebMD: DHA overview
Wikipedia,"Docosahexaenoic acid."[DHA] Wiki: DHA
"Primary structural component of the human brain, cerebral cortex, skin, sperm, testicles and retina. It can be synthesized from alpha-linolenic acid or obtained directly from maternal milk or fish oil. Cold-water oceanic fish oils are rich in DHA."
Wikipedia, "Eicosapentaenoic acid." [EPA] Wiki:EPA
"Fish do not naturally produce EPA, but obtain it from the algae they consume. The human body converts alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) to EPA. ALA is itself an essential fatty acid, an appropriate supply of which must be ensured. The efficiency of the conversion of ALA to EPA, however, is much lower than the absorption of EPA from food containing it. EPA in particular may possess some beneficial potential in mental conditions, such as schizophrenia. Studies have suggested that EPA may be efficacious in treating depression. One 2004 study, took blood samples of 100 suicide attempt patients and compared the blood samples to those of controls and found that levels of eicosapentaenoic acid were significantly lower in the washed red blood cells of the suicide-attempt patients. A 2009 metastudy found that patients taking omega-3 supplements with a higher EPA:DHA ratio experienced less depressive symptoms."
Wikipedia, "Fish oils." Wiki fish oil
Wikipedia, "Omega-3 fatty acids."
Wiki: omega-3 fatty acids
Wikipedia, "Ratio of fatty acids in different foods." Wiki: Ratio of omega fatty acids
Wong Cathy, "Krill Oil-Health Benefits, Uses, Side Effects & More," Alternative Medicine, July 22, 2013. Wong: Krill oil benefits 2013