Spirulina Astaxanthin 
By Walter Sorochan: Emeritus Professor San Diego State University

Posted Novermber 23, 2017; Updated November 5, 2021  The information herein is for educational purposes only. It is not to be perceived as medical advise or as an attempt to sell a particular product. Information herein is not intended to diagnose, treat or prevent any disease. Please consult you medical advisor if you have questions.

This article summarizes the importance of spirulina Astaxanthin to the health of all persons.  

Astaxanthin, a red-orange spirulina, is believed to be the most powerful antioxidant found in nature. Research has shown it can benefit your entire body. But for it to work and restore the chemistry of the body to good optimal state, you need to ingest it for at least two weeks to two months and then continue ingesting it on a continual basis.  This length of time is needed to build up the reservoir dosage in all parts of the body.  You will not notice much difference from the past, but you should feel better, have more energy and sense signs of body improvement, like a clearer skin, less pain in joints, slight disappearance of wrinkles and fewer colds and flu.   Astaxanthin is the world's best kept health secret! 

To understand how astaxanthin works, one needs to also understand free radicals, anti-oxidants and how these relate to astaxanthin.  We need to know what causes free radicals [body wastes] in the body and how we can get rid of free radicals.

While the body is constantly working 24 hours a day, cells are metabolizing and generating energy as they carry out their tasks. This natural process results in free radicals or wastes, the same way as driving your car creates exhaust fumes.

Free radicals: Free radicals are wastes produced most often when the body is working. Radicals are caused by breathing, digestion, immune system and other normal body functions. Free radical wastes are also created when we exert ourselves, as in sports. [However, those non-athletes, such as most persons in resting stage, produce radicals at a slow rate] Such exertion burns additional fuel for energy and during this process an onslaught of single oxygen molecules [ waste] is produced and released throughout the body. This would make the person more tired and sluggish.

Free radicals [ example on left in figure above] are chemically active atoms or molecular fragments that need one ot two electrons, to stabalize, from another source like oxygen or part of a somatic cell; due to an excess or deficient number of electrons. Free radicals are unstable molecules within the body that attack and destroy the biochemical processes within cells. When the above free radical units with the antioxidant, it is stabilized and destroyed. But if the free radical combines with a part of a normal cell, it compromises the immune system that makes the body vulnerable to disease. These free radicals cause oxidative stress to our bodies. Oxidative Stress or Oxidation means rusting process as oxygen rusting iron over time. Free radicals are also known as Oxidants, and to neutralize them, you need to take AntiOxidants [ on right side of above figure].

Mother nature uses anti-oxidants to combine with these free floating radicals and remove them from the body.

The human body is designed to naturally get rid of normal free radicals in two different ways:

1. the body produces superoxide dismutase to remove free radicals before they can do an harm.

2. use antioxidants [ vitamin C ] from our diet to disperse free radicals throughout our bodies and not have them pile up in one place like muscles or joints.

Unfortunately, modern life has disrupted this natural getting rid of free radicals process! For example:

Firstly, proliferation of packaged foods, modern farming technologies and long-range transportation of food products have lead to severe decreases in antioxidants and other fragile nutrients in plant foods we eat.  Many nutrient properties that are rich in food on the vine or still in the soil begin losing their nutrient and antioxidant properties immediately when harvested.  Exosomes in fresh food that contain electrical properties and messages for health or diseases deteriorate rapidly each day these are in transit, sit in the grocery store or home and are not eaten.

Secondly, our bodies today produce unprecedented levels of oxidation that occur in our bodies, compared to the time when our grandparents were young. The changing modern world conditions in our lifestyle have caused many new causes of free radicals, such as air and water pollution, chemicals in consumer products, use of preservatives, pesticides and additives in our food supply, increased levels of stress in modern life and increased ultraviolet exposure due to diminishing ozone layer.  All these create more oxidative levels in our bodies that self-produced and dietary antioxidants simply cannot handle. The consequences of all this increased oxidation in our bodies is higher levels of cancer, heart disease and other chronic diseases. Astaxanthin supplies anti-oxidants that help prevent disorders and chronic diseases.

Today, we are at an oxidation imbalance of life.  The world expert on Astaxanthin, Bob Capelli, mandates that we need to eat locally grown fruits and vegetables and also supplement with a strong, effective antioxidant for maximum protection. He recommends taking at least 4 mg per day of natural Astaxanthin, preferably with your meal and some fat or oil to help absorption, as a preventive health measure. Capelli: Astaxanthin-white-paper

What is astaxanthin? Scientists have known since 1940 that spirulina Astaxanthin is a powerful oxidant but really ignored its health potentials until recently. It is today the strongest antioxidant in the world.

Sources: Astaxanthin is available in plant-sea animals and it is also made synthetically. Nearly all commercially available astaxanthin for aquaculture is produced synthetically. Good Astaxanthin is often extracted from Euphausia superba (Antarctic krill) and from shrimp processing waste. But the best is from natural spirulina Haematococcus pluvialis Astaxanthin.

Astaxanthin is found in microalgae, yeast, salmon, trout, krill, shrimp, crayfish, crustaceans, and the feathers of some birds [flamingos]. It provides the red color of salmon meat and the red color of cooked shellfish. Algae are the primary natural source of astaxanthin in the aquatic food chain. The microalgae Haematococcus pluvialis accumulates the highest levels of astaxanthin in nature.

Astaxanthin is classified as a xanthophyll (originally derived from a word meaning "yellow leaves" since yellow plant leaf pigments were the first recognized of the xanthophyll family of carotenoids), but currently employed to describe carotenoid compounds that have oxygen-containing moities, hydroxyl (-OH) or ketone (C=O), such as zeaxanthin and canthaxanthin. Indeed, astaxanthin is a metabolite of zeaxanthin and/or canthaxanthin, containing both hydroxyl and ketone functional groups. Capelli: Astaxanthin-white-paper 2017

For those disbelievers and skeptics who are still clinging on to their old fashioned beliefs about food  having all the nutrients the body needs, here is additional information about the benefits of natural Astaxanthin: 

There are scores of good supporting research articles about the health benefits of ingesting Astaxanthin on a daily basis. Refer to Capelli's articles [in references] for information about many of these.

Astaxanthin has four distinguishing properties that make it the world's highest quality antioxidant [radical remover]: Capelli: Astaxanthin-white-paper 2017

  • Astaxanthin can cross the blood-brain and blood-retina barriers to bring protection to the brain and eyes.

  • Astaxanthin protects the water soluble and fat soluble areas in our cells.

  • Astaxanthin never turns into a Pro-Oxidant. [chemicals that induce oxidative stress, either by generating reactive oxygen species or by inhibiting antioxidant systems. The oxidative stress produced by these chemicals can damage cells and tissues.]
  • Astaxanthin can bond with muscle tissue, providing relieve to athletes.

The above really describes how Astaxanthin works in the body. Other antioxidants may have one or two of these factors but not all four.  Natural Astaxanthin takes longer to work, often one month or longer, with the same results as other pain killer drugs that can kill pain in one day, many with side effects.

Astaxanthin is a much stronger anti-oxidant than other nutrients as depicted in the graph below: Capelli: Astaxanthin-white-paper 2017

As you you can see, the other antioxidants were not even close to astaxanthin:

  • 8000 times more potent than vitamin C

  • 800 times more potent than CoQ10

  • 550 times more potent than Green tea catechins

  • 75 times more more potent than alpha lipoic acid

When you ingest a natural Astaxanthin capsule, you are getting supporting caratenoids, lutein, betacarotene and canthaxanthin as a package, which helps Astaxanthin work better in the body. According to Capelli, supplementing with natural algae-based Astaxanathin is the best preventive supplement you can take for longer and healthier life.  Capelli: Astaxanthin-white-paper 2017

Dosage: Natural Astaxanathin is the best way to protect damage to DNA and the body. Daily dosage of only 2 mg each day for four weeks reduce DNA damage by approximately 40% in a research study. However, Capelli recommends a minimum of 4 mg each day, which would make the affects of Astaxanthin more effective and quicker. Capelli: Astaxanthin-white-paper 2017

Following is a table of recommended dosages that is provided as a rough guideline for consumers. Capelli: world's best kept secret 2013 When deciding what is the right dose level for yourself, it’s probably best to start at the highest level for the first two months of use. This will give the Astaxanthin Use Recommended Dosage Antioxidant a chance to concentrate in your body: Capelli: world's best kept secret 2013


 After that, you can try coming down to a lower level in the range and see if you continue to get your desired results. The standard delivery form from most manufacturers has become 4 mg soft gelatin capsules; but recently in the USA, products range from 2  mg to as high as 12 mg per capsule have come on the market.

Bioavailability - How well you absorb astaxanthin: Absorption depends on carotinoid absorption.  No one really knows if they’re a good absorber of carotenoids or a poor absorber. To deal with this unknown, many people choose to take the upper limit of 12 mg per day right from the start. This can be a smart move to increase the chances of getting the benefits you’re looking for and not ending up in the 15% - 20% of people who don’t feel any difference from using Astaxanthin. But in the interest of thrift, it doesn’t hurt to use the higher limit of 12 mg per day for the first few months as mentioned above, and then experiment with coming down to 4 mg per day afterwards. There’s a very good chance that you’ll get the same results, but at a more economical monthly investment. Two important things to remember are: 1. There is no toxicity level, so taking more won’t hurt you and 2. Astaxanthin is so powerful that even taking a little bit each day in a multivitamin or antioxidant formula will go a long way toward helping prevent all the life-threatening diseases associated with oxidation and inflammation. The most common way of taking astaxanthin is as a capsule. Capelli: world's best kept secret 2013

Safety: Chronic toxicity studies show that natural Astaxanthin is completely safe and has absolutely no adverse side effects or contraindications. It takes two to six weeks to fully work and once it is in high gear, it can kill pain and inflammation just as effectively as prescription pain killers, without any side-effects. Capelli: Astaxanthin-white-paper 2017  You just have to be patient and wait for safer ingestion and for it to kick in.

Clinical Applications: Astaxanthin has been used for treating Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, “brain attack” (stroke), high cholesterol, minimize heart disease, pain and inflammation, relive from joint, muscle and arthritis pain and an eye condition called age-related macular degeneration (AMD). It is also used for preventing cancer and can be applied directly to the skin for protection against sunburn. Additional research studies report improvement in asthma and prostate symptoms.  Capelli: Astaxanthin-white-paper Capelli reports that Astaxanthin also acts as a sun screen, allowing no sunburn for over five hours. Capelli: world's best kept secret 2013

According to a 2012 study, 36 Japanese men who took astaxanthin supplements saw incredible results in about one month. Their wrinkles got smaller, their skin was more elastic and hydrated and even oil production was under better control.  Capelli: Astaxanthin-white-paper 2017

There are many commercial companies selling astaxanthin products under different names.  But before buying any, check to make sure that the product originally comes from natural spirulina Haematococcus pluvialis. Also, check the references for statements made by marketing firms. If there is hype but no reference documentation, then the source and product is probably not too reliable. Avoid the synthetic product as you can’t buy it as a supplement for human nutrition because to date, it is not approved by any country’s health authority as safe for human consumption. However, most countries do allow it to be sold for use in animal feeds, including food for salmon fish raised in farming enclosures. So how safe is farm salmon?

Synthetic astaxanthin is very different from natural Astaxanthin  Difference between synthetic and natural Astaxnthin: Capelli: Astaxanthin-white-paper 2017

  • Natural Astaxanthin is superior to synthetic in prolonging the life of investigational worms by reducing reactive oxygen species more effectively.

  • Natural Astaxanthin's intercellular antioxidant activity is approximately 90 times stronger than synthetic astaxanthin's.

  • Astaxanthin is more effective than other carotenoids as a neuroprotectant in rats due to its superior oxygen scavenging.

  • Astaxanthin is stronger as an oxidant than lutein and beta-carotene.

  • Astaxanthin is more effective than other carotenoids as an antioxidant with higher electron transfer activity.

  • Astaxanthin is the most potent antioxidant amongst several carotenoids tested.

  • Astaxanthin is more stable than zeaanthin, canthaxanthin and beta-carotene during lipid perioxidation.

  • Astaxanthin is a potent antioxidant in a membrane model.

  • Astaxanthin is a more effective antioxidant than beta-carotene through its stabilization of trapped radicals.

Validated health benefits :  Capelli: Astaxanthin-white-paper 2017

  • maintains eye health

  • improves brain health

  • minimizes pain and inflammation

  • minimizes joint-tendon pain

  • helps skin health

  • protects against UV1 sunburn

  • enhances energy & athletic performance

  • enhances immune system

  • enhances longevity

  • may improve prostate health

  • may minimize asthma

  • may prevent cancer

  • may prevent heart disease

Beware:  Astaxanthin may not help everyone. Capelli states that while most people, about 85 percent, experience benefits from taking astaxanthin, it doesn't work for everyone. "The reason why is because many people have a very poor ability to absorb carotenoids (astaxanthin is a carotenoid)," Capelli explains. "People absorb anywhere from as low as 5 percent of the carotenoids in their diet or in supplements, up to over 90 percent. If your body absorbs 90 percent, you're going to get a great benefit even at 2 to 4 mg a day. But if you're a 5 percent absorber, you might take 12 mg a day for several months and still get almost no benefit." Another factor to keep in mind is that astaxanthin is a fat soluble supplement. So unless you take it with a small amount of fat in a meal, it's not going to absorb well. Butter, coconut oil, or eggs would be ideal complements to ensure optimal absorption." Capelli: Astaxanthin-white-paper 2017  Capelli: world's best kept secret 2013   Article by Mercola interview with Bob Capelli is no longer active.

Dr. Andrew Weil takes an exception to the views of astaxanthin experts that it enhances wellbeing. Weil states that there is not enough research on all of this. Weil does not recommend 2014 Weil is not an expert on astaxanthin and is unaware of the latest 2017 research. This author sides with Dir Bob Capelli that supplementing with a good Astaxanthin brand will help you heal and maintain optimal wellbeing. 

Where to get Astaxanthin?: The real question to ask is where does astaxanthin come from?  Which country? Astaxanthin, produced in countries with weak or no environmental pollutant regulations, may be contaminated with heavy metals and other contaminants that remain as part of the astaxanthin supplement. Those supplements derived from spirulina grown and packaged in United States should be safe. All astaxanthin is not the same! 

If you like wild salmon, the species that has the highest amount of astaxanthin is called wild sockeyei, common around Alaska. If you eat about half to three-quarters of a pound, you're going to get the same amount of astaxanthin that you get in one 4 mg capsule." Typically, that's too much for most people to be eating in one day, so it may be difficult to reach commonly used therapeutic doses through diet alone. Also keep in mind that the majority of salmon sold in restaurants and your local food store is farm raised, not wild-caught. The problem with farm raised salmon is that the astaxanthin as food is a highly inferior synthetic version [ made from petro-oil] that may have still unknown toxicities.  Article by Mercola interview with Bob Capelli is no longer active.

There are only a handful of companies that grow and package astaxanthin in United States. Marketers importing astaxanthin from foreign companies and then repackaging same should be avoided. Other than the above information, it is difficult to know which company has the best astaxanthin product.  Check the seller for references, origin of country, experts running the company, water source and ask for a nutrient analysis. The list below is not an endorsement, merely an incomplete list of natural brand astaxanthin that should be safe and good:

AstaZine® is World’s First Certified Organic Haematococcus pluvialis microalgae powder, made in Hawaii.

BioAstin is produced by NUTREX-CyanoTech in Hawaii, Boasts of contaminant free astaxanthin. CyanoTech also has an extensive library about astaxnathin, adding credibility to its supplement.

Then there other name brands that profess to make and market Astaxanthin, like: AstraReal [Sweden and Moses Lake, Wa.], Regebeauvex [Canada], AstaZan [New Zealand] and spirulina Superfood created by Dr. Kiriac in Canada.

There are many markets selling astaxanthin online. For reader convenience, this author displays Swanson's Health Foods selling BioAstin 4mgs capsule per day, 120 capsules container for $26.00. Author does not endorse Swanson's Health Foods.

The author has summarized the most recent research; you need to decide whether you want to take astaxanthin, an orange color spirulina.


Capelli Bob, "The Anti-aging bemefits of Asazanthin and how it can protect our cells and DNA," BGG North American, Inc, 2016.  Capelli: Anti-aging benefits 2016

Capelli Bob, "The world's strongest and highest quality natural anioxidant: astaxanthin," BGG North American, Inc, 2017.  Capelli: Astaxanthin-white-paper 2017

Capelli Bob and Gerald Cysewski, NATURAL ASTAXANTHIN The World’s Best Kept Health Secret, [Book], 2013.   Capelli: world's best kept secret 2013

Lookfeelbetter, "Free Radicals: Enemies Within. What Are They And How Are They Formed," October 20, 2016.   Look Feel: Enemy within 2016

Mercola Joseph, "Astaxanthin: Better than Vitamin E: One of the Easiest Ways to Reduce the Appearance of Wrinkles," Mercola, October 29, 2011.  Article by Mercola interview with Bob Capelli is no longer active.

Natural News, "Astaxanthin Prevents Heart Disease, Diabetes and Alzheimer's Dementia," December 16, 2011.  Astaxanthin benefits

Tominaga Kumi , Nobuko Hongo, Mariko Karato and Eiji Yamashita, "Cosmetic benefits of astaxanthin on humans subjects," Journal of the Polish Biochemical Society, March 17, 2012.  Tominaga cosmetic benefits 2012

Weil Andrew, "Is astaxanthin a better anti-oxidant?" Weil Health and Fitness, October 24, 2014.  Weil does not recommend 2014

AlgaeHealth, "Astaxanthin Clinical Research - 10 Health Benefits" [summary]  Source: AlgaeHealth Benefits

1. 4 Human Clinical Studies • 50 Supporting Pre-Clinical Trials • 7 Human Clinical Studies • 27 Supporting Pre-Clinical Trials • 4 Human Clinical Studies • 26 Supporting Pre-Clinical Trials • 3 Human Clinical Studies • 11 Supporting Pre-Clinical Trials • 14 Human Clinical Studies • 24 Supporting Pre-Clinical Trials • 6 Human Clinical Studies • 40 Supporting Pre-Clinical Trials • 42 Human Clinical Studies • 214 Supporting Pre-Clinical Trials • 12 Human Clinical Studies • 27 Supporting Pre-Clinical Trials • 10 Human Clinical Studies • 87 Supporting Pre-Clinical Trials • 9 Human Clinical Studies • 51 Supporting Pre-Clinical Trials Brain Health Eye Health Skin Health & UV Protection Athletic Performance & Energy Levels Anti-Aging & Cellular Health Joint,Tendon and Muscle Support Cardiovascular Support Immune System Modulation World’s Strongest & Highest Quality Natural Antioxidant Male Fertility “The Healthy Ten” Ten Clinically-Validated Benefits of Natural Astaxanthin* Member of NAXA A Company info@AlgaeHealthSciences.com | 949.748.7348 | AlgaeHealthSciences.com

2. Member of NAXA A Company info@AlgaeHealthSciences.com | 949.748.7348 | AlgaeHealthSciences.com ClinicalTrial Results • Reduces various oxidative stress markers • Prevents oxidative damage • Prevents peroxidation of blood lipids including LDL cholesterol • Prevents depletion of non-enzymatic antioxidant defense • Dosage range 2mg to 4mg per day World’s Strongest & Highest Quality Natural Antioxidant In-Vitro Research Results • Multiple times stronger than all other antioxidants tested in various head-to- head antioxidant experiments regardless of testing method • Generally at least 10X stronger than all other carotenoids • 800X stronger than CoQ10 • 550X stronger than Vitamin E • 6000X stronger than Vitamin C • 18X stronger than Pycnogenol® • 20X to 90X stronger than Synthetic Astaxanthin as an antioxidant in three separate tests from two peer-reviewed studies.

3. Member of NAXA A Company info@AlgaeHealthSciences.com | 949.748.7348 | AlgaeHealthSciences.com ClinicalTrial Results • Decreases C-Reactive Protein (CRP) levels (key marker for systemic or “silent” inflammation) • Prevents muscle damage and inflammation in athletes • Reduces pain in rheumatoid arthritis sufferers • Decreases pain rate and pain duration in carpal tunnel syndrome sufferers • Improves grip strength by 93% in sufferers of tendonitis (tennis elbow) with reduced pain and improved mobility • Reduces joint and muscle pain in heavily-training athletes • Dosage range 4mg to 12mg per day Joint, Tendon and Muscle Support In-Vitro Research Results • Astaxanthin has been shown to support 8 different inflammatory response markers without side effects or contraindications • Tumor Necrosis Factor-A • Prostaglandin E-2 • Interleukin 1-B • Interleukin 6 • Nitric Oxide • Nuclear Factor Kappa-B • Cox 1 Enzyme • Cox 2 Enzyme

4. Member of NAXA A Company info@AlgaeHealthSciences.com | 949.748.7348 | AlgaeHealthSciences.com ClinicalTrial Results • Dose-dependently improves visual acuity (the ability to see fine detail) • Improves depth perception • Improves eye fatigue • Also can prevent eye fatigue • Increases retinal capillary blood flow • Increases blood flow velocity to the eyes • Prevents eye strain • Improves eye accommodation (ad- justment of the lens that allows it to focus) • Reduces blurred vision • Reduces eye soreness • Prevents eye dryness • Prevents diplopia (double vision) • Dosage range 4mg to 8mg per day Eye Health Brain Health ClinicalTrial Results • Prevents age-related decline in cognitive function • Improves psychomotor function in elderly subjects • Improves marker for dementia in middle-aged and senior subjects and may contribute to the prevention of dementia from aging • Improves cognitive function in healthy middle-aged and elderly subjects • Decreases mental fatigue and confusion • Improves erythrocyte antioxidant status to help transport oxygen to the brain • Dosage range 6mg to 12mg per day

5. Member of NAXA A Company info@AlgaeHealthSciences.com | 949.748.7348 | AlgaeHealthSciences.com ClinicalTrial Results • Improves blood lipid parameters in patients with mild hyperlipidemia • Dose-dependently inhibits LDL cholesterol oxidation • May contribute to the prevention of atherosclerosis • Improves blood flow rate • Decreases heart rate of athletes when doing endur- ance training • Dosage range 4mg to 18mg per day Key In-Vitro Study Result • Completely negates the pro-oxidant effects of Vioxx (prescription anti- inflammatory that caused heart attacks in some consumers due to it becoming a pro-oxidant) Cardiovascular Support Skin Health and Beauty-from-Within ClinicalTrial Results • Reduces fine lines and wrinkles • Increases skin moisture levels • Improves skin elasticity • Prevents skin sagging • Reduces visible signs of UV-aging within four to six weeks of use • Prevents photo-aging of skin • Prevents UV damage • Improves skin conditions in all layers of the skin (corneocyte layer, epidermis, basal layer and dermis) • Dosage range 4mg to 6mg per day

6. Member of NAXA A Company info@AlgaeHealthSciences.com | 949.748.7348 | AlgaeHealthSciences.com ClinicalTrial Results • Improves power output by 15% and reduces racing time by 5% in competitive cyclists • Promotes recovery from exercise • Prevents muscle fatigue • Improves endurance • Increases strength in healthy subjects • Increases grip strength in sufferers of tennis elbow by 93% • Decreases lactic acid levels • Decreases respiratory parameters during exercise • Helps prevent muscle damage and in- flammation in elite soccer players • May be effective in preventing exercise-induced free radical production • Improves oxidative status in athletes • Prevents joint and muscle soreness after exercise • Decreases heart rate in athletes doing endurance training • Dosage range 4mg to 12mg per day Athletic Performance and Energy Levels Immune System Modulation ClinicalTrial Results • Improves a variety of immunity markers in subjects at only 2mg per day in eight weeks • Increases the total number of antibody-producing B-cells • Amplifies natural killer cell cytotoxic activity • Leads to increased number of T-cells • Stimulates white blood cell counts • Significantly increases delay-type hypersensitivity response • Dramatically reduces DNA damage • Raises immunoglobulin levels in healthy athletes • Suppresses lymphocyte activation in patients with allergic rhinitis and pollen-related asthma • Leads to therapeutic improvement in patients suffering from auto-immune disease • Dosage range 2mg to 4mg per day

7. Member of NAXA A Company info@AlgaeHealthSciences.com | 949.748.7348 | AlgaeHealthSciences.com ClinicalTrial Results • Improves sperm functioning • Increases sperm linear velocity • Improves sperm quality • Increases sperm motility • Decreases reactive oxygen species in sperm • May be used to decrease male idiopathic infertility • Improves conception rate in infertile men • Also improves sperm functioning and motility in normal men without any fertility issues • Dosage 16mg per day Fertility and Sperm Improvement Anti-Aging and Cellular Health ClinicalTrial Results • Skin Health and Beauty-from-Within • Eye & Brain Health • Joint, Tendon & Muscle Health • Cardiovascular Protection • Immune System Modulation • Strength, Endurance and Energy Levels • Dosage range 4mg to 12mg per day In-Vitro Research Results • Mitochondria protection • Prevention of damage to DNA • Profound inhibition of oxidation • Safe & natural anti-inflammatory activity

8. Member of NAXA A Company info@AlgaeHealthSciences.com | 949.748.7348 | AlgaeHealthSciences.com Major Areas of Pre-Clinical Research • Support of Healthy Cell Lines 46 studies • Gastrointestinal Health 31 studies • Glucose Metabolism Management 25 studies • Liver & Kidney Health 23 studies • Respiratory Health 4 studies * Please note this document is available for various countries all over the world and hence it may contain statements not applicable to your country.