By Walter Sorochan
Posted January 26, 2013. This web-site is work in progress Disclaimer The information presented here is for informative and educational purposes only and is not intended as curative or prescriptive advice.
This article summarizes green barley grass [ Hordeum vulgare ]; not barley seed or grain. While scrolling the internet in an attempt to find documented information about green barley grass, this author observed numerous commercial web-sites marketing their green grass products and purporting to offer similar, invalidated information. There appears to be an information copycat trend among entities marketing and selling barley products. Only two web-sites were found to disclose ample information about their barley green grass product with references to back up the claims. Pines: original barley grass info Pure Healing Foods: barley grass A number of commercial retailer companies were also contacted for more backup research information.
Good research about green grass barley is missing at most marketing web-sites! This web-site collects the claims about green grass barley information into one article location and provides reference documentation for the information cited. Prospective consumers can refer to this information, become better informed and hence, make informed decisions about consuming green barley grass.
Green grass is the wholesome food of many animals and birds. Scientists started studying grasses in the 1930's in an effort to discover its nutritional mysteries and included it in animal feed. They found that animals could survive on grass alone but, in contrast, failed on other healthy vegetables like spinach and carrots. Meyerowitz: wheat grass benefits When animals and fowl eat green grass, they become healthier. The same is true for humans!
Barley grass versus wheat grass: The earliest research was done on wheat grass. Both grasses have similar nutrients and body benefits. According to research, wheat grass may be a little more bitter and somewhat difficult to consume compared to barley grass.
"Barley juice contains 15 times as much protein as an equivalent amount of milk, and when compared to wheat, barley juice contains 5 times as much protein, 5 times as much calcium, 4 times the vitamin B-1, 100 times the vitamin C, 20 times the vitamin E and 26 times as much potassium as in wheat." Byrnes: Barley fact sheet 2011
This was the basis for reviewing green barley grass.
Claims made for barley grass and barley grass powder: Pines: original barley grass info Abrams:Barley juice 2005 East: Barley grass benefits 2011 Pure Healing Foods: barley grass Byrnes: Barley fact sheet 2011 Block: Barley grass 1999 Kiefer: SOD antioxidants 2006 DePietro: Chlorophyll benefits 2012
Barley green grass powder has dynamite power to heal the body and prevent chronic diseases and disorders. This power comes from the diverse makeup of barley green grass: ability to maintain body alkalinity, the cleansing action of chlorophyll and fiber and the essential nutrients for maintaining optimal well-being.
Alkalinity: Green barley grass has a high alkalizing effect, which helps keep the ratio between acidity and alkalinity in our body fluids balanced. Our cells cannot adequately function if the pH (which measures acidity and alkalinity) is not in a narrow range. Most processed foods are acidic, and when we consume too many of them, the acidity-alkalinity balance is upset. Green barley grass contains buffer minerals such as sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium. Buffer minerals neutralize acidic materials and can help maintain a healthy acidity-alkalinity balance. Most processed foods are acidic, and when we consume too many of them, the acidity-alkalinity balance is upset. Green barley can help people maintain a healthy acidity-alkalinity balance. Pines: original barley grass info
Chlorophyll: may be the most important ingredient in green barley grass due to its impact on body functions. Chlorophyll gives plants a green color. It allows plants to use process photosynthesis that allows chlorophyll to capture the sun's energy and with the help of magnesium to convert light, water and carbon dioxide into plant starch and oxygen.
It is the chlorophyll in plants that allows your body to do many magic things. It detoxifies poisonous toxins and rids the intestines of stored toxins. Because it is a natural detoxifier, it also aids in reducing bad breath, removes carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide and reduces fecal, urinary, and body odor in geriatric patients. Young: chlorophyll detoxifies human odors 1980 Chlorophyll is known to help fight infection, help heal wounds, and promotes the health of the circulatory, digestive and immune systems. It contains the anti-oxidant and anti-aging enzyme SOD and has excellent anti-inflammatory qualities. Seibold: ceral grass benefits
Chlorophyll also has a very similar structure to blood hemoglobin. There is a remarkable similarity between chlorophyll and the red pigment in blood. Research in the 1940s demonstrated that the two pigments react the same during breakdown. According to an article in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute (Jan. 4, 1995), chlorophyll fed to laboratory animals reduces absorption of three dietary carcinogens: heterocyclic amines (found in cooked muscle meats), polycyclic hydrocarbons (found in smoked and barbecued foods), and aflatoxin [ a mold on peanuts ]. The chlorophyll formed complex compounds with the carcinogens while they were still in the digestive tract, limiting their bioavailability.
While the mechanism is unclear, chlorophyll consumption may increase the number of red blood cells and, therefore, increase oxygen utilization by the body. For more easy to read information go to: DePietro: Chlorophyll benefits 2012
It is chlorophyll that gives green grass barley all these magic powers!
Nutritional analysis: Pines International Pines: original barley grass info is the original source of information about green barley grass.
Seven Tablets or 1 Tsp. of Powder Contains:
Source: Pines: original barley grass info Pure Healing Foods: barley grass
Nutritional values Observation: Not all barley powders are created equal. The above nutrient analysis is ONLY for one commercial product. This analysis is not the same for all commercial barley grass products. Many barley products are diluted with other ingredients; likewise, the nutrient analysis for green barley grass and barley grain seed will also be different.
The products marketed as Pines Pure Healing Foods: barley grass and Alka·Green™ Morter: barley grass info are reputed to be grown under organic conditions and contain no chemical fertilizer, insecticides, or pesticides. Products are not diluted, so these provide the maximum concentration of the naturally chelated colloidal alkaline minerals so vital to health. Other barley products may be diluted up to 40% by Maltodextrin and brown rice which means they may contain only 40% chlorophyll; hence less effective than Pines or Alka·Green™ in alkalizing the body. Both products have not been heat-treated; thus, these remain enzyme active.
Alert: "For those persons gluten intolerant, do not take Alka Green." Morter: barley grass info
Barley Research: Many forms of barley or barley extracts have not been scientifically investigated in human subjects. Conway: Health effects of barley consumption This is especially true for green barley grass.
The most extensive and reliable information about green barley grass [ as well as wheat grass ] has been researched by PINES International, Inc, Lawrence, Kansas. a commercial grain grower, harvester, processor, lab analyzer and marketer. Pines: original barley grass info Pines International has done much of the research about barley and wheat grasses. Many cereal grass producers and internet marketers have 'copycat' quoted information about their products from the data contained within the book, edited by Ronald L. Seibold, “Cereal Grass: What’s In It For You!” published in 1990. The data contained within the book is based on specific harvest time, minimal processing at temperature of 1040F and honest labeling.
Pines features Pine International, reputed to be the world’s premier cereal grass grower; and a marketing company --- Live Foods Company, Inc..
Researchers from the US Department of Agriculture/Agricultural Research Services Diet & Human Performance Laboratory in Beltsville, MD present some information about barley foods [ barley pearled grain, barley fiber, beta glucan ] but no research on green barley grass. Researchers at USDA investigated the barley grain’s health benefits as it relates to critical health issues facing Americans today. Conway: Health effects of barley consumption For more information, click here.
Examples of questionable info about barley grass: The web-site for BarleyLife has author Byrnes providing undocumented information about barley grass research that dates back to 1982. Furthermore sparse information about barley grass is used on the website as a gimmick to market its barley products. BarleyLife is a also mix of food ingredients; it is not a pure barley grass product and lacks barley grass credibility! Hence, one cannot trust the information about barley grass on this website although some of it may be correct. Byrnes: Barley fact sheet 2011
Another marketer, barleysupplements is using a marketing ploy to validate its products and advertizing by comparing supposedly 10 different sellers of barley products. By this comparison it apparently hopes display credibility and to attract buyers. Unfortunately, the web-site fails to disclose a responsible contact person or entity, no contact e-mail, no documentation for product source and so on. It is a fox guarding the chicken-coop! A vested interest entity trying to make itself and its products respectful.
Availability: Barley green grass powder is grown and marketed throughout the world in Australia, Canada, China, Europe, Japan, New Zealand and the Philippines. If you live outside the USA, and want to locate your local barley sellers, you can get more information by googling for it on the internet.
Common ways to consume barley grass
Barley grass may be consumed in capsule or tablet form, as well as powder and juice. You can also apply it on the skin.
The best way to consume barley grass is when it is freshly pressed barley grass juice. The taste is bitter when dissolved in water. To make it easier to take, mix barley green grass powder in cool orange juice. This would be the best way to reap the full benefits of the abundant enzymes in barley grass. Information Doing so would necessitate you growing your own barley grass and this may not be very practical for most persons. The next best approach is to buy commercially produced green barley grass juiced powder from an honest and reputable marketer.
Barley grass is commonly taken as green barley grass juiced powder mixed with raw foods, juices or water. It's best to take it on an empty stomach, either 20 minutes before a meal or 2 hours after so that the nutrients can be assimilated easily without the presence of other foods. Make sure you use either cold or room temperature liquid, as hot liquid will break down the live enzymes. Pines: original barley grass info Pure Healing Foods: barley grass
Digestive enzymes may destroy the natural enzymes in barley grass capsule or tablet from. Some persons suggest spreading green barley grass mix over the skin, asserting that nutrients will be absorbed directly into the blood stream. Research validating this procedure is missing.
Storage: So you bought some green barley grass powder. Keep the glass container away from moisture and sunlight with the lid fastened securely. Do not store barley grass powder in the refrigerator where condensation could cause nutrients to oxidize and break down.
Barley grass smoothie recipies: You can blend-mix barley juice powder with other foods such as beet, carrot, apple, banana and other foods. Using a straw is fun and helps bypass the taste buds!
How much to take and when should be indicated on the company product label. Such instructions may vary from product to product as there is no standardization of green barley grass products. Two most reliable products, based on online disclosures, are Pines International and Morter Alka Green barley grass powder. The author uses these sites to illustrate dosage:
Pines Barley grass powder; Container info: approximately 1 ½ month supply: Pines: original barley grass info
Side-effects: There are no harmful side effects. Some persons may experience nausea or irregular bowel movements in the starting few days .... which will subside once the body gets accustomed to the product. In such cases, reduce the quantity to say half a spoon & increase slowly day by day as per body acceptance.
Conclusion: The author was motivated to search for documented information about green barley grass prior to consuming it.
A google search for chlorophyll in green barley grass and "medical uses" and "health benefits" returned mostly sites belonging to companies actively selling it, and describing it as a miraculous cure-all. We need more independent research on the barley green grass benefits.
Although there are a lot of entities selling barley product supplements, most do NOT provide reliable information about their product [ probably because of labeling laws ]. Even though barley grass is safe to use and there are no side effects to consuming green barley grass, if nutrient and health benefits are not stated in the label or seller web-site, then you as a consumer do not know what you are buying. Buying directly from Pines International is safe because the company states such information on its web-site.
"Barley grass is said to be the only vegetable on Earth which can supply all the nutrients which the human body needs from birth to old age." Information Although complete research may be missing about the benefits of barley grass on health, this should not stop you from trying out barley green grass. It may be your 'magic bullet" for super health. Consume barley green grass to enhance your green veggies.
One teaspoon of barley green grass powder, in a concentrated form that is easily assimilated by your digestive system, has more nutrients than all daily meals that include green vegetable salad, meats, assortment of fruits, nuts and other foods. Whereas it is impossible to eat a daily diet to meet RDI standards, a tablespoonful of barley green grass juiced powder, mixed as a smoothie juice every day, will help meet your nutritional and overall body requirements better than vitamin-mineral supplements and food. But .... you need to be aware that it may often take two or more months for the benefits of barley green grass to 'kick in' before you can feel or see the affects.
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References: The references cited below have been quoted by many web-sites marketing various forms of barley grass. Many of these are personal opinions, not real scientific documentation and are without publication sites. An impressive list of related references about wheat grass may be found in the web-site Pine Wheat Grass .
Abrams Jann, and Janet Pauly, "A New Look At Barley Juice," December 12, 2005. Abrams:Barley juice 2005Badamchian, M.; Spangelo, B.; Bao, Y.; Hagiwara, Y.; Hagiwara, H.; Ueyama, H.; and Goldstein, A. 1994. "Isolation of a Vitamin E Analog From a Green Barley Leaf Extract That Stimulates Release of Prolactin and Growth Hormone From Rat Anterior Pituitary Cells in Vitro." The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, Vol. 5, March, 1994.
Badamchian, M.; Naylor, P.H.; Spangelo, B.; Strickler, M.P.; Stone, M.J.; Hagiwara, Y.; Hagiwara, H.; and Goldstein, A.L. "Immune-endocrine Activities of Green Barley Leaf Extract (BLE): Regulation of Prolactin and Interleukin-2 Release in Vitro." FASEB Journal, 1991, Vol. 5, No. 4. [ Badamchian: barley activates immunity ]
BarleySuplements, Private company analysis of green grass barley products BarleySupplement analysis
Barley green grass responses for info:
1. Robin G. Thomas, MS, RD., USDA-ARS Nutrient Data Laboratory, Beltsville, MD.
2. US Barley Association, Seattle Washington.
3. PINES International, Inc, Lawrence, Kansas;
4. Pure Healing Foods, Ridgecrest, Ca.
5. Dr. Morter, MorterSupplements, Monticello, IA.; We
are just retailers of Alka Green Powder.
6. Ann Wigmore Natural Health Institute, Rincón, Puerto Rico
7. Doyle Lentz, North Dakota Barley Council, Rolla, ND
8. Green Barley, Philippines
9. Morter.M.T,, Morter Health System Rogers, Arkansas. No
10. UnitedStates of Vitamins, location unknown.
11. Cost Less Vitamin, no e-mail response.
Bar-Sela Gil, Tsalic Medy, Fried Getta, Goldberg Hadassah. "Wheat Grass Juice May Improve Hematological Toxicity Related to Chemotherapy in Breast Cancer Patients: A Pilot Study," Nutrition and Cancer, 2007, Vol. 58, No. 1, Pages 43-48. [ Bar-Sela: wheat grass fights breast cancer 2007 ]
Ben-Arye E, Goldin E, Wengrower D, Stamper A, Kohn R, Berry E., "Wheat Grass Juice in the Treatment of Active Distal Ulcerative Colitis: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial," Scand J Gastroenterol 2002 April;37(4):444-9.
Birscher Dr., chlorophyll studies, Bircher-Benner Clinic, Zurich, Switzerland. A lot of web-sites reference Birscher but no one provides original documentation source.
Block Betsy, “Barley Grass”, NATURAL HEALTH Magazine, October 1999, pg. 44. Block: Barley grass 1999
"How green barley grass works: An antioxidant called alpha-tocopherol succinate - a potent relative of vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) may be responsible for much of the plant's anti-tumor action, according to Allan L. Goldstein, Ph.D., head of the biochemistry department at George Washington University's School of Medicine and Health Sciences in Washington, D.C., who has studied barley grass. Though its mechanism is unknown, alpha-tocopherol succinate seems to inhibit several types of cancer, including leukemia, brain tumors, and prostate cancer."
Byrnes Chris, "Barleylife Fact Sheet, AIM, September 27, 2011. Byrnes: Barley fact sheet 2011
Calloway, D., Newell, G., Calhoun, W. and Munson, A., "Further studies of the influence of diet on radiosensitivity of guinea pigs, with special reference to broccoli and alfalfa," Journal of Nutrition, 1962, 79:340-348.
Conway Joan M. and Kay M. Behall, "Health Effects of Barley Consumption," USDA, Diet & Human Performance Laboratory, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Bethesda, Md. Conway: Health effects of barley consumption
"Conclusion Consumption of soluble fiber improves risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus. It also provides satiety value. Soluble fiber reduces plasma cholesterol concentrations, lowers postprandial plasma glucose and insulin concentrations and ameliorates insulin resistance. Most research on soluble fiber has focused on oats. Barley, another excellent soluble fiber source, has received little attention. Many forms of barley or barley extracts have not been investigated in human subjects. Thus, research is needed to assess the health effects of human consumption of barley and barley products including germinated barley foodstuff, barley co-products, and barley Nutrim.
DePietro MaryAnn, "Health Benefits Of Chlorophyll: Facts Or Myths?" SymptomFind, February 2, 2012. DePietro: Chlorophyll benefits 2012
Durham Janis J , Joji Ogata, Sadatoshi Nakajima, Yoshihide Hagiwara, Takayuki Shibamoto; "Degradation of organophosphorus pesticides (malathion, chlorpyrifos, guthion, diazinon, methidathion and parathion) in aqueous extracts of young green barley leaves (Hordeum vulgare L)"; Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616; Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture Volume 79, Issue 10, 1999, pages 1311-1314. An abstract is available at Durham USDA: abstract
Durham, J., Ogata, J., Nakajima, S., Hagiwara, Y., and Shibamoto, T. "Degradation of organophosphorus pesticides in aqueous extracts of young green barley leaves (Hordeum vulgare L) ", J. of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 1999, Vol. 79: 1311-1314. Durham: barley grass degrades pesticides "young barley grass extracts effectively degraded a variety of organophosphorus pesticides including malathion, chlorpyrifos, guthion, diazinon, methidathion, and parathion "
East Katherine, "Barley Grass brings many benefits to the diet," Natural News, February 07, 2011. East: Barley grass benefits 2011
Enzymes found in Barley green grass:
• Aspartate aminotransferase
Goldstein Allan L.,George Washington University; the key to barley grass's anti-oxidant power appears to lie in alpha-tocopherol succinate. Goldstein says this substance is a relative of vitamin E and appears to inhibit several types of cancer, including leukemia, brain tumors and prostate cancer. "Barley grass leaf extract dramatically inhibits the growth of human prostatic cancer cells grown in tissue culture. ...It may provide a new nutritional approach to the treatment of prostate cancer." See rainforest reference for more information. [ Goldstein: Barley grass fights cancer ]
Gromley, James J., "Green leaves of barley ease arthritis for some" Better Nutrition for Today's Living , September 1995, Vol. 57 Issue 9, p42, 1p, 1c Reports on the beneficial effects of barley juice for arthritis sufferers. Harmful effects of aspirin or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs traditionally prescribed by doctors; Ancient origin of barley; Nutritional value of barley juice; Other medical conditions that can be treated with barley juice; Barley-producing states. [ Gromley: barley helps arthritis 1995 ]
Gruskin, B., "Chlorophyll — its therapeutic place in acute and suppurative disease," American Journal of Surgery, 1940, 49:49-55. "Dentistry: Chlorophyll solutions provide significant relief of pain, reduction of inflammation, and the control of odor for patients with serious mouth diseases" [ Gruskin: barley grass relieves pain ]
Hagiwara, Y. "Study on green juice powder of young barley (Hordeum vulgare L) leaves II: Effect on several food additives, agricultural chemicals, and a carcinogen," Presented at the 98th National Meeting of the Japanese Society of Pharmaceutical Science (1978).
Hagiwara, Y., Sayuki, S., Miyauchi, T., Otake,H., Abe, S., Kuramoto, M., and Takada, K., "Study on green barley extract," Presented at the 99th National Meeting of the Japanese Society of Pharmaceutical Science, Sapporo (1979). book: Green Barley Essence
Hotta Yasuo, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, November 2004. [ Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Beltsville, MD, research ]. Research is trial study about barley grain fiber A; biologist named Yasuo Hotta from the University of California, La Jolla, found a substance called P4D1in barley grass. Not only does this substance have a strong anti-inflammatory action, but it was also shown to actually repair the DNA in the cells of the body. This aided in the prevention of cancer, aging, and cell death. He reported in a Japan Pharmacy Science Association meeting that P4D1 suppresses or cures pancreatitis, stomatitis, inflammation of the oral cavity, and dermatitis, and also lacerations of the stomach and duodenum. He found that barley juice is much stronger than steroid drugs but has fewer if any side effects. [ Hotta: barley repairs DNA 2004 ]
Jenkins D.J. et al, "Supplemental barley protein and casein similarly affect serum lipids in hypercholesterolemic women and men;," Journal of Nutrition, September 2010. Jenkins: barley & antioxidants 2010
Kiefer Dale, "Superoxide Dismutase Boosting the Body’s Primary Antioxidant Defense," Life Extension Magazine, June, 2006. Kiefer: SOD antioxidants 2006
Kimm, S., Tschai, B., and Park, S. , "Antimutagenic activity of chlorophyll to direct and indirect-acting mutagens and its contents in the vegetables," Korean Journal of Biochemistry, 1982, 14:1-7.
Lai, C., Butler, M., and Matney, T. . "Antimutagenic activities of common vegetables and their chlorophyll content," Mutation Research,1980, 77:245-250. "In 1980, Dr. Chiu Nan Lai at the University of Texas Medical Center, reported that extracts of wheat grass and other green vegetables inhibit the cancer-causing effects of two mutagens (benzopyrene and methylcholanthrene). The more chlorophyll in the vegetable, the greater the protection from the carcinogen." [ Lai wheat grass inhibits cancer 1980 ]
Liu WC, Tsai CE. "Young Barley Leaf Prevents LDL Oxidation in Humans," Food Science and Agricultural Chemistry [published by The Chinese Institute of Food Science and Technology] Vol. 4 (3): 110-116 (2002). l Liu: barley grass prevents oxidation ]
Lutz Howard, director of the Institute of Preventive Medicine in Washington, D.C., has said this about barley grass: "(Barley grass is) one of the most incredible products of this decade. It improves stamina, sexual energy, clarity of thought, and reduces addiction to things that are bad for you. It also improves the texture of the skin, and heals the dryness associated with aging." [ Lutz: Barley grass improves skin ]
Meyerowitz Steve, "Why wheatgrass is nature's finest medicine," DetoxifyNow. author of "Wheatgrass, Nature's Finest Medicine" Meyerowitz: wheat grass benefits
Miyake, T. and Shibamoto, T., "Inhibition of Malonaldehyde and acetaldehyde formation from blood plasma oxidation by naturally occurring antioxidants." J. of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 1998, Vol. 46 (9): 1135-1138.
Morter, M.T., "Benefits of Barley Grass Juice Powder," Morter: barley grass info Much of the information about Barley grass farming, harvesting, processing and reference documentation is hidden or missing from online website.
Alka Green was developed in the 1990s by Dr M.T. Morter, Jr., because he couldn't find a barley grass powder that met the five criteria that make a great barley powder. Morter claims that his Alka Green Barley Powder is: Organic; 100% Pure Barley; Juiced; Cold-Dried; Harvested young (at 10 inches).
Morter Health System Review, Diet Spotlight, Morter Hea Sys review
"There are two programs offered by the Morter Health System. One is called Family B.E. S. T. and is designed for families who want to learn about how to make the right lifestyle choices for better health. The other is the Professional B.E.S.T that is designed for health care professionals who want to learn how to share the information with their patients.
Mukhopadhyay S., J. Basak, M. Kar, S. Mandal, A. Mukhopadhyay; Netaji Subhas "The Role of Iron Chelation Activity of Wheat Grass Juice in Patients with Myelodysplastic Syndrome," Journal of Clinical Oncology, 27:15s, 2009 (suppl; abstr 7012) 2009 ASCO Annual Meeting. Presenter: Soma Mukhopadhyay, PhD. Chandra Bose Cancer Research Institute, Kolkata, India; NRS Medical College, Kolkata, India; Central Institute for Research (Ayurveda), Kolkata, India. "Conclusion: The study found wheat grass juice to be an effective iron chelator and its use in reducing serum ferritin."
Muto, Tatsuo. 1977. "Therapeutic Experiment of Bakuryokuso(Young Green Barley Juice) for the Treatment of Skin Diseases in Man. " New Drugs and Clinical Application, Vol. 26, No. 5.
Nakajima, S., Hagiwara, Y., Hagiwara, H., and Shibamoto, T., "Effect of the Antioxidant 2"-O-Glycosylisovitexin from young green barley leaves on acetaldehyde formation in beer stored at 50 degree C for 90 days," , Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 1998, Vol. 46 (4): 1529-1531.
Yoshihide Hagiwara, a Japanese doctor and the founder of a company that sells barley grass, users should take 2 to 6 grams of barley grass powder two to three times per day. Ordinarily, users dissolve the powder in water or juice. Dr Hagiwara died in the spring of 2004 from cancer.
Ong, T., Whong, W., Stewart, J. and Brockman, H., "Chlorophyllin: a potent antimutagen against environmental and dietary complex mixtures," Mutation Research, 1986, 173:111-15.
Ong, T., Whong, W. Stewart, J., and Brockman, H., "Comparative antimutagenicity of 5 compounds against 5 mutagenic complex mixtures in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98," Mutation Research, 1989, 222:19-25. "Ames testing shows that chlorophyllin neutralizes the cancer-causing action of mixtures of coal dust, tobacco, fried beef, red wine, and other compounds."
Osawa, T., Katsuzaki, H., Hagiwara, Y., and Shibamoto, T., " A novel antioxidant isolated from young green barley leaves," , J. of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 1992, Vol. 40 (7): 1135-1138.
Osawa, T.; Katsuzaki, H.; Hagiwara, Y.; Hagiwara, H.; and Shibamoto, T. "A Novel Antioxidant Isolated From Young Green Barley Leaves." Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 1992, Vol. 40, No. 7. : 1135-1138.
Osowski A. et al, " Natural compounds in the human diet and their ability to bind mutagens prevents DNA-mutagen intercalation," Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A, January, 2010.  [ Osowski: prevent mutations 2010 ]
Perricone Nicholas, "Dr. Perricone's No. 3 Superfood: Barley," Energize Your Health, July 15, 2005. Perricone: barley super food 2005 "barley grass boosts good nutrition." Article taken from www.Oprah.com
Pure Healing Foods, "barley Grass," Mailing Address: Pure Healing Foods, 890 N. China Lake Blvd. Suite B, Ridgecrest, CA 9355, Phone: (760) 301-0940 E-mail: Info@PureHealingFoods.com Pure Healing Foods: barley grass
Rainforest Foods, "Barley grass and the cancer debate," Barley grass & cancer debate
Schnabel, C.. "The biologic value of high protein cereal grasses," Paper presented to the biologic section of the American Chemical Society in New York, April 22, 1935.
Seibold Ronald L., "Cereal grass What's in it for you! The Importance of Wheat Grass, Barley Grass and Other Green Vegetables in the Human Diet," Cereal Wheat Grass book, PINES International, Inc. Lawrence, Kansas. Seibold: ceral grass benefits Letter to The National Agricultural Hall of Fame,February 11, 2012 PINES Wheat Grass Pines store locations
Smith, L., "Chlorophyll: an experimental study of its water-soluble derivatives. Remarks on the history, chemistry, toxicity
and anti-bacterial properties of water soluble chlorophyll derivatives as therapeutic agents," American Journal of the
Medical Sciences, 1944, 207:647-654.
Smith: chlorophyll therapy
Smith, L., "The present status of topical chlorophyll therapy," The NY State Journal of Medicine. July 15, 1955, p. 2041-2049. "Chlorophyll heals wounds: chlorophyll limits the growth of many types of germs not by directly killing them, but by providing an environment which interferes with their growth. Chlorophyll is also known to reduce the itching, pain and local irritation of surface wounds. Chlorophyll was first scientifically demonstrated in the 1940s as an effective deodorizing agent. In the decade that followed, toilet paper, diapers, chewing gum, bedsheets, toothpastes, shoe liners, and a number of other products containing various amounts of green coloring and crude chlorophyll extracts began appearing on store shelves." [ Smith: chlorophyll reduces itching and pain 1955 ]
Spector, H. and Calloway, D., "Reduction of x-radiation mortality by cabbage and broccoli," Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, 1959, 100:405-407. [ see Calloway ]
Tsai Ching-Min, Graduate Institute of Nutrition and Food Science, Fu Jen University. "dietary changes including daily supplementation with Barley may provide several important benefits for cardiovascular function"
Young, R. and Beregi, J., "Use of chlorophyllin in the care of geriatric patients," Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 1980, 28:46-47. Young: chlorophyll detoxifies human odors 1980 "Chlorophyll reduced offensive odors, as anticipated, promoted regular bowel movements in these patients and reduced the amount of intestinal gas experienced by the patients."
Yu Ym , Chang WC, Chang CT, Hsieh CL, and Tsai CE. Effects of barley leaf extract and antioxidative vitamins on LDL oxidation and free radical scavenging activities in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Metab Vol. 28 (2): 107-114 (2002).
Ym Yu, Chang WC, Liu CS and Tsai CM. "Effects of young barley leaf extract and adlay on plasma lipids and LDL oxidation in hyperlipidemic smokers," Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2004, Vol. 27 (6).
Yu YM; Chang WC; Chang CT; Hsieh CL; Tsai CE "Effects of young barley leaf extract and antioxidative vitamins on LDL oxidation and free radical scavenging activities in type 2 diabetes. " Diabetes & metabolism [Diabetes Metab] 2002 Apr; 28 (2), pp. 107-14. Results indicate that supplementation with BL may help to scavenge oxygen free radicals, save the LDL-vitamin E content, and inhibit LDL oxidation. Furthermore, the addition of vitamins C and E to BL can inhibit the Sd-LDL oxidation more effectively, which may protect against vascular diseases in type 2 diabetic patients.
Yu YM; Wu CH; Tseng YH; Tsai CE; Chang WC "Antioxidative and hypolipidemic effects of barley leaf essence in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis." Japanese journal of pharmacology 2002 Jun; Vol. 89 (2), pp. 142-8. The results suggest that the antioxidant and hypolipidemic effects of barley leaf essence could be useful in the prevention of cardiovascular disease in which atherosclerosis is important. [ Yu: barley leaf prevents CVD 2002 ]
Webmaster, "Barley Grass Powder - benefits, nutrition and other information," ALL 4 Natural Health. Information
Wigmore Ann, "Wheatgrass." Information testimonial in nature. The Wheatgrass Book, 1985, Avery Publishing Group. Wayne, NJ. Wigmore: Benefits wheatgrass Wigmore: Wheatgrass cancer therapy Wigmore founded Hippocrates Health Institute, a treatment and educational center in Boston.