Understanding how the human body works: a basis for preventing diseases and enhancing wellbeing 
Compiled by Walter Sorochan Doctor of Health and Safety Emeritus Professor San Diego State University

Posted January 14, 2020, updated January 15, 2023; February 7, 2023. The information presented here is for informative and educational purposes only and is not intended as curative or prescriptive advice. The information has not been approved by FDA.

Abstract: This article summarizes how the human body works to prevent diseases, enhance wellbeing and survive. Numerous examples are supported with references.

Medical perception of the 11 body systems helps doctors in medical practice but does not help the general public understand how the body works as a health system. This author would argue that people today lack the incentive to engage in preventive measures because they do not know how their bodies work, lack information about how food and bacteria are linked to disease and wellbeing and are unaware that they can prevent most of the diseases themselves. The general public and youngsters do not have the skills for self-survival. Knowing how the body works is an overlooked change agent!

We eat, work, play, sleep and enjoy life but do so without being aware of how our body works. We fail to understand that our biological body works like a machine that depends on the fuel it needs to work well.

Scientists have found new physiological research since 1990 that helps explain how the body works, how food affects the functions of the body and how food can evolve diseases or optimal wellbeing. Advancements in biological science and medicine in the past 30 years have uncovered some of these hidden mysteries that outdate the traditional medical practices: biological advancements include methylation and epigenetics; 1   recognizing the impact colon bacteria have on immunity, diseases and health; 2 3   liposomal encapsulation delivering medication and nutrients to target sites thereby speeding up healing;  4  sunlight waves, referred to as photons, work at the speed of light, switching body functions off/on, creating chemical reactions within the cells, allowing body cells to talk to each other throughout the body, preventing diseases, healing and enhancing wellbeing and survival;  5  plasticity describes how the mind-brain needs new experiences that excite and challenge it to higher levels of functional living;  6  nutrient - density  and the recent 2015 Israeli study, Algorithms Personal Diet, linking food to bacteria in the colon, blood glucose and being able to identify foods causing diseases or wellness. 7

A new word in science has emerged for how much change takes place indifferent earthly and space events, that of quantum. Events taking place in the human body, other than the medical 11 body systems, are referred to as quantum biology. More on quantum biology later.

Why focus on how the body works?

It is this author's belief, from practical experience and reviewing hundreds of articles about health, health care and medical practice, that most medical doctors, during their 10 minute limited appointment with their patients, usually prescribe pain therapy but seldom find time to elaborate on how the human body works. Most people visit their doctors but do not really understand how their body works to make them sick or well! It is this lack of 'how the body works' that can be a most helpful change agent in prevention and behavior change. Using a fear tactic by telling the obese patient to lose 'weight or else!' carries little motivation to do so as it is overpowered by comfort foods that are addictive. The overweight/obese person needs to know how the body works in a healthy versus obese body and how obesity incubates other chronic diseases. Knowledge is an ignored weapon and change agent!

Preventing diseases with 'How The Body Works' information

Here are examples about 'how the body works' that medical doctors and the general public need to know in order to prevent illnesses and diseases and foster wellbeing:

1. Body is a machine: Mark Anstendig  8  perceives the human body as a machine: The human body is a biological-chemical-electrical precise, delicate and complex machine that works in hidden and mysterious ways.

"The human body is a machine consisting of many different, interconnected machines. Each machine (heart, lungs, intestines, etc.) runs at its own individual speed, but all function in a specific, predetermined relationship to each other. In this sense, the body is analogous to the most complicated man-made machines, such as automobiles, tape recorders, or space capsules, which consist of many separately functioning components that are mechanically linked together, each of which, in itself, is a complete machine. In fact, the body is the most complex of all such compound machines. But unlike man-made machines, the various machines that make up the body are not in a rigid, inflexible, unchanging interrelation to each other. The flywheels and cogwheels of a watch or the parts of a transmission system of an automobile are in rigid interrelationship to each other. They either function at a prescribed ratio to each other, with little allowable tolerance, or they break. Not so with  the human body. Even with relatively great aberrations from what would be considered normal, it is still possible for the body to function and sustain meaningful life. If the components of the body greatly exceed the normal tolerances, the aberrations become so disruptive that they are usually experienced as sickness. But there is relatively great leeway in the ratio to each other of the functioning of the various interrelated separate organs. While these possible variations do affect the functioning of our bodies, determine our general feeling of well-being (nervousness, sluggishness, etc.), and limit (in the sense of defining the limits of) our sensory perceptions, they must vary quite far from the norm before someone would be either incapacitated or considered sick. But it is the subtle ways in which bodies that are functioning normally differ from each other, and the effect these differences have on the way we experience our five senses, that determine the differing qualities of our experiences."

2. Survival wellness: The body is hardwired to survive.  9  It is in a constant survival mode. Today, most persons move slowly over time into incubating a disorder or chronic diseases.  10  Most persons vacillate at this level, probably harboring at least one body health problem, often incubate a second disorder or disease and not be aware of it. 11 12 13  The general population eats an addictive comfort diet, are chronically obese and overweight, and would be classified in a survival wellness mode.

What happens in survival wellness?   14   An interesting, as yet unexplained phenomenon of the human machine is that the human body is able to adapt in a mysterious way like homeostasis, with no present signs or symptoms of mineral or vitamin imbalance that could result in a disorder. The adaptation utilizes amino acids, vitamins and minerals to fill in the missing information-healing gaps. And probably borrowing from Peter to pay Paul, as robbing bones for calcium or/and magnesium! Such adaptation will, in time, result in failed body systems. A person may go through his/her entire life nutritionally deficient or unbalanced and not know it while socializing, enjoying physical, mental and emotional activities. During this seemingly good time, depending on the severity or lack of nutritional balance, one may never become severely ill, while other factors are present that contribute to incubating diseases related to emotional stresses, environmental toxins, processed foods, colon bacteria and so on and the body balancing these out with overall low level survival wellness. The classic example of the body's ability to survive, for several months with a major nutrient deficiency, is that of sailors on ancient sailing ships subsisting on a diet deficient in fresh fruits and vegetables [vitamin C], gradually causing scurvy symptoms in sailors. Today, many suffer from nutritional deficiencies similar to that of sailors long ago and not realize it.

The body is in a constant survival mode and depends on sunshine, food, colon bacteria and physical activity to make the body work properly. It is safe to say that if there are no visible signs of disease, that most persons and medical doctors would assume such a person to be healthy. However, in real life, the body of a person appearing to be in good health and functioning may not necessarily be well; the degree of wellbeing is compensated, hidden and medically undiagnosed.

When a person eats junk, sweet and processed foods, the body converts this food into energy and stores the excess calories as body fat. This excess fat incubates over many years into chronic diseases like obesity, cancer, heart disease, stroke and diabetes. The incubation takes place silently over many years, although the person appears in good health.

3. You could remove a large part of your internal organs and survive: The human body may appear fragile but it’s possible to survive even with loss of teeth, the removal of the stomach, the spleen, 75 percent of the liver, 80 percent of the intestines, one kidney, one lung, and virtually every organ from the pelvic and groin area. You could suffer a stroke and lose 80 % of your brain, then slowly have the good 20% of the brain relearn how to walk, talk,  recover your abilities and function well. You might not feel too great, but the missing organs wouldn’t kill you. Your body is programmed to survive. 15  

4. Circadian brain is master time clock: Many parts of our body are programmed to work as a biological clock: 16

We've long known about the master clock in our brains that helps us maintain a 24-hour sleep-wake cycle. But in recent years, scientists have made a cool discovery: We have different clocks in virtually every organ of our bodies — from our pancreas to our stomach to our fat cells. "Yes, there are clocks in all the cells of your body," explains Fred Turek, a circadian scientist at Northwestern University. "It was a discovery that surprised many of us." We humans are time-keeping machines. And it seems we need regular sleeping and eating schedules to keep all of our clocks in sync. Many persons become accustomed to waking up without an alarm clock!

Examples of such time keeping were provided by Professors Gerry Boss and JE Seegmiller of Department of Medicine at University of California, San Diego, in 1981, in summarizing age-related physiological changes occurring in people:  17

Physiological changes occur with aging in all organ systems. The cardiac output decreases, blood pressure increases and arteriosclerosis develops. The lungs show impaired gas exchange, a decrease in vital capacity and slower expiratory flow rates. The creatinine clearance decreases with age although the serum creatinine level remains relatively constant due to a proportionate age-related decrease in creatinine production. Functional changes, largely related to altered motility patterns, occur in the gastrointestinal system with senescence, and atrophic gastritis and altered hepatic drug metabolism are common in the elderly. Progressive elevation of blood glucose occurs with age on a multifactorial basis and osteoporosis is frequently seen due to a linear decline in bone mass after the fourth decade. The epidermis of the skin atrophies with age and due to changes in collagen and elastin the skin loses its tone and elasticity. Lean body mass declines with age and this is primarily due to loss and atrophy of muscle cells. Degenerative changes occur in many joints and this, combined with the loss of muscle mass, inhibits elderly patients' locomotion."

5. Energy, heart and lung functions decline with aging:

aging Adulthood-+Physical+Changes

The graph above, by Insel and Roth, illustrates that as we get older, energy, heart and lung capacity decline. However, the function of other body parts also decline.

   Oh, so you know all this stuff! Well, read on and learn something you do not know.

6. Digestion changes as we age: As we age, the digestive system creates fewer amounts of enzymes. As stomach acids and digestive enzymes decrease with age, we have digestive and health problems.  18  

As we age, the digestive process becomes less efficient:

    •In the mouth, food may not be properly broken down due to missing teeth or gum problems as well as lowered saliva production.
    •The lower sphincter that regulates the flow of food from the esophagus into the stomach, can weaken resulting in reflux, a back flowing of food or acid (heartburn).
    •Loss of muscle tone causes food to move more slowly along the digestive tract.
    •The stomach becomes less elastic and cannot hold as much food.
    •The production of acids and enzymes declines. A decline in the production of lactase, an enzyme that digests dairy products can lead to lactose intolerance, a condition that causes bloating and gas when milk products are consumed.

aging stomach-acid-secretion

Source: Insel and Roth of Stanford University in 1976

As you can see from the graph above, stomach acids decline with age. This is especially true when the stomach wall slows down the secretion of hydrochloric acid [HCL] that breaks down proteins. Such lack of HCL keeps proteins longer in the stomach. This can cause regurgitation, or slight vomiting, causing the sensation of heartburn, reflux, or gerd, in the throat.

Gerd or Reflux: is a digestive problem. At the lower end of the esophagus, there is a valve [sphinter] that stops acids in the stomach from going back up into the throat or esophageal sphincter. If the esophageal sphincter is faulty --- it does not close and open properly, then stomach contents can make their way back up into the esophagus (reflux) and mouth. Babies often regurgitate until this sphincter and digestive system starts to work properly. Although the condition of reflux in adults is controversial, it should be pointed out that one theory of reflux suggests that the stomach secrets less hydrochloric acid, causing protein digestion to be delayed, thereby causing a reflux feeling of slight vomiting.

Esophageal disease is associated with large-scale changes in the microbes that colonize the esophagus, although it is not yet clear whether the effect is a cause or an effect of GERD.

7. Bone changes with aging: Bones usually change in density and strength over time. The bones become thin, brittle and may be easily broken. Such change may be accelerated with poor diet and leaching of minerals [calcium, magnesium] out of the bones, causing osteoporosis.

aging bone changes 1443441314825  osteoporosis

Source: Insel and Roth of Stanford University in 1976

Well, up to now, the information has been presented piece-meal. But this is not the way the human body works.  Everything in the body is inter-related and works like nutritional co-factors, helping each body part to function properly.

8. Prostate gland changes as men age: The prostate gland continues to grow as men get older, causing enlargement of the prostate gland. Prostate enlargement, or benign prostatic hyperplasia [BPH], can start after the age of 40 and becomes more common as men get older. Excessive BPH can block urination. It affects nearly all men, though some men do not have any symptoms even though their prostate may have started to grow larger. More than half of men in their sixties and as many as 90 percent of men in their seventies and beyond exhibit some symptoms of BPH.  19

As men get older, four main types of prostrate problems can occur: enlargement of prostate, referred to as Benign prostate Hyperplasia [BPH]; urinary retention; prostatitis or infection/inflammation; and prostate cancer.  Women may also suffer from urinary retention. 20  

Although the medical community may be aware of the problem, the majority of men and women are not aware of this progressively-aging problem. Over time, the bladder muscle can become so weak that it can lose its ability to completely empty itself. As a result, the residual urine remaining in the bladder can act as a reservoir that harbors bacterial growth, leading to urinary tract infections (UTIs) and more seriously, poteal kidney infections. As the prostate enlarges, the prostate begins to compress the urethra, blocking normal urine flow, causing urinary retention [obstruction]. Persons unable to urinate need to go to the Emergency Room immediately. A medical doctor or nurse will insert a catheter, a flexible plastic tube, through the urethra into a bladder and empty the bladder, thus relieving the painful urge to urinate.  21

9. Immune system: Immunity changes with age, becoming slower to respond, causing flu' shots to not work as well as expected; an autoimmune disease may develop; the body may heal slower; and the immune system's ability to detect and correct cell defects also declines. Seventy or more percent of the immune system comes from the bacteria in the colon. 22   People are more prone to infections like the common cold and influenza when the immune system is low. This usually happens when people are eating junk foods, and a diet low in nutrients. A healthy diet supercharges the immune system.

As the graph below illustrates, we begin to lose our immune level after age twenty:  23

ageing imminuty

Source: Insel and Roth of Stanford University in 1976

It may surprise you to find out that there is no specific organ called the "immune organ." The immune system is a collaborative effort by the entire body to maintain the blood in a "clean" state; the result is immunity .... that is to say; an ability by the body to protect itself from foreign invasion by organisms or substances that might compromise it.  24   

So how can you restore your broken immune system?  This is a tricky fix as there may be many factors contributing to the bacterial dis-balance at the same time. Not only do we need to restore the good and bad bacteria inside our body but also control the environment outside us. Doing both at the same time can muddy the progress of the fix and can be counterproductive. Buying the hype advertized probiotics and ingesting same may not be the best way to fix a broken immune system!  25   So lets start with the food you eat and try to restore the good and bad guys in the gut and thereby restore at least part of our immune system. Most of us will probably have more control of the internal body ecosystem than our external environment.

10. Healing is part of our immune system: Healing means making whole! Any time you have an injury at any age, you have an inflammatory response that is part of the immune process. Inflammation may include all or some of the symptoms of redness, temperature, swelling, and pain. Most persons are not aware that pain is an intelligent messenger of your injury. Indeed, pain is more than a symptom, it is your body sending a message that it is starting to heal the injury or body problem. Most persons tend to ignore such signals.

The human body has the ability to heal itself. 26  27   Doctors tell us that older persons usually take longer to heal. However, the observation that older persons take longer to heal may not be all that true. When a person takes pain killers, or does not ingest proper nutrients for healing, then these may interfere with and prolong healing. Wound healing sets off a complex chain of events that involves increased cellular [immune] activity and an intensified metabolic demand for nutrients. Patients who don't have enough nutrients to meet this increased demand are at risk for delayed healing, infection, longer hospital stays, and even death.

The ancients acknowledged what we moderns do not, that sunlight is really the source of all energy on earth, and that since sunlight does activate the pineal gland, thereby regulating sleep and activating the healing power of the body.  It is during sleep that most of healing takes place. The amount of exposure to sunlight has an affect on the functioning of the pineal gland and the amount of melatonin being made by the human body. Are you getting enough sleep?

The healing process will slow down when one does not get enough sleep or one has more than one body problem to heal. But, the body likes to heal all broken parts at the same time and as quickly as possible.

Good germs in the gut can fix a broken - sick human body.  28   

11. The body has the ability to heal itself if given adequate nutrients:  29 30  The body's priority is to heal the whole body at the same time and not just a broken bone or organ.  31 32    

12. Fever: [ pyrexia ] is part of healing. It is the body’s natural defense immune system that raises its temperature above normal in an attempt to destroy invading organisms and sweats impurities out of the system. A body temperature over 103 degrees Fahrenheit disables bacteria. Cold viruses do not reproduce at higher body temperatures. Fever speeds up metabolism, inhibits the growth of an invading virus or bacteria, accelerates the healing processes and has been used successfully to treat cancer.  33  34   Even the USA National Institute of Cancer acknowledges that fever does successfully treat cancer.  35  

13. Colon bacteria and specific antibodies: Most persons dismiss bacteria in the large intestine as waste. But this intestine has good bacteria that enhance the immune system by producing bacteriocidins or high specific antibodies.

The implication for humans is that colon bacteria can create the body's own antibiotics that are part of the immune system. But junk foods, sugar sweets, processed foods and red meat are food to the bad bacteria that interfere with the body making natural antibiotics.  36 

14. Methylation is essential for life: Understanding methylation helps you become aware of the effect your diet and lifestyle have on methylation. Methylation is the process of taking a single carbon and three hydrogens, known as a methyl group [CH3], and applying it to countless essential functions in the body, such as: thinking, repairing DNA, turning genes on and off, fighting infections and getting rid of environmental toxins to name a few. Every cell in the body needs the methyl group to work properly.   37  38  39  

If methylation gets compromised, then you will have a weak immune system and probably get sick often.  40  41 

Methylation is a biochemical process that occurs in every cell in our body billions of times per second.  42   Methylation involves methyl groups rich in butaine that remove or chelate out poisons and toxins. People deficient in methylation have trouble eliminating poisons. These build up in the body, as when we digest carbohydrates to release energy. The toxins build up. An example of such poison blockage is high levels of acetylaldehyde, a potent neurotoxin released when drinking alcoholic beverages. Detoxifying acetylaldehyde allows methylation to clear this alcohol poison, thereby reducing symptoms of drunkenness.

Methylation, a carbon with three hydrogens, requires that all the nutrients, vitamin Bs and enzymes work together in unision. Eating beets, green vegetables and broccoli each day supply much needed butaine.  43   

Lastly, methylation helps to regulate your immune system. If you have a shortage of methyl groups, or your methylation cycle is interrupted, any or all of the immune processes can become compromised, and you will be susceptible to getting sick.  44  45   

15. Homeostasis: is the tendency of the human body and/or cells to regulate its internal environment and maintain equilibrium, usually by a system of feedback controls, so as to stabilize health and body functioning. To maintain homeostasis, the body communicates with a stimulus that is sent as a signal to the control center where the control center interprets the information and then instantly sends response messages that include pain, inflammation and other appropriate responses.  46 

Our body state is in continuous adapting change, as with blood pressure or insulin adjusting sugar levels; that can change from one minute to the next, causing many persons to live in a survival mode. In real life there is no total body balance or stability as the human body adjusts thousands of times a day to the changing environment in an effort to survive.

Homeostasis includes unique thermostats that juggle a constant inner environment like temperature control, oxygen, water and body alkali pH of about 7.2 balance with instant adaptation to internal and external environmental changes.  47  48  

Every second that we are alive, the cells in our bodies are endlessly working to bring us back to a natural state of homeostasis or equilibrium.

16. Body alkalinity vs acidity:  The human body works and heals best in an alkali environment.  49 50 51  Murphy discusses how eating the wrong foods creates an acid body, that in turn, makes one more susceptible to chronic diseases:  52

"We live and die on a cellular level. If our cells are healthy then we are healthy and if our cells are not healthy, if they live in a toxic environment, then we are not healthy. The human body contains about ten gallons of fluid so its cells are swimming in an ocean that is either acid, neutral or alkaline. The body’s systems work best in an environment that is neutral to slightly alkaline although some vital organs, like the stomach,  produce very acidic substances. The pH, or “potential of Hydrogen” is a logarithmic scale that measures the relative acidity or alkalinity of a solution. Solutions are measured from 0 [totally acid] to 14 [totally alkaline] and 7 is neutral."

Everything we eat creates acidic waste in our bodies. Many acid wastes are normally excreted from the body in the form of urine and sweat. However, this is a slow process and these wastes accumulate as they circulate around in the blood. The body attempts to neutralize and detoxify these acids before they start destroying cells. The cells of the human body depend on a balanced acid-alkaline pH balance between a pH of 7.0 to 7.2. An alkali body has a desirable pH of about 7.2. If any fluids are abnormal, digestive enzymes become inactive, food does not digest properly and allergic reactions can occur.  53

As we grow older, and our diet changes, our chemical and physiological pH buffering [protection]  mechanisms often fail us, and the body begins to develop an overall acid profile. About 98% of the American public is acidic because of the foods they eat! The typical American diet and way of life are far too high in acid-producing animal products like meat, eggs and dairy; and far too low in alkaline-producing foods like fresh vegetables. We also eat acid-producing processed foods like white flour and sugar and drink acid-producing beverages like coffee and soft drinks. We use too many drugs and artificial chemical sweeteners which are extremely acid-forming and create an acidic body!  54    

Thus the imbalance of the body pH causing toxic waste, or acidosis, is the real killer, the silent killer, because it’s the beginning of so many deadly diseases! The human body works and heals best in an alkali environment.

17. Lymphatic system: is your body’s built-in sanitation center, the plumbing that carries away and filters out poisonous waste products from every cell, tissue and organ. It absorbs fats and fat-soluble vitamins from the digestive tract and delivers them to the cells of the body. It is also an essential part of the immune system that maintains fluid levels, fights infection and produces disease fighting white blood cells. Twice as big as the arterial blood supply system which brings oxygen and nutrients to the cells, the lymphatic system is the 'take away' garbage collector and is the largest circulatory system in the body.  55  

Although humans are born with a natural immune-detoxification system,  56   they need daily exercise to make it work.

But the lymphatic system does not have a pump to move lymph fluid and toxins. Toxins are stored in lymph nodes and joints. When toxins overstore, they make one feel sick, and interfere with other body processes. To move these toxins, the body needs muscles to contract and squeeze the surrounding the lymph vessels and push the lymph fluid out into the veins in the upper part of the body, then into the blood system and kidneys and out as urine. Any kind of exercise, like jarring rope skipping and running, is movement that activates this natural detoxification.  Although humans are born with a natural immune-detoxification system,  57  they need daily exercise to make it work.  You need daily exercise to move the toxins out of your body; this is information worth knowing.

18. Detoxification: We may look healthy and wonder why we feel bad but not relate feeling bad to an excess of toxins. Our body gets rid of toxins by breathing, skin pores, liver, kidney, digestive system and the lymphatic system.

The body’s lymph system is probably one of the most under-studied, least understood, and most ignored system in the body. Our polluted environment and lifestyle puts a big burden on our body, causing many health problems. 58  Detoxification is just as important as eating a good diet, exercising and practicing good health habits.

Your lymphatic system absorbs fats and fat-soluble vitamins from the digestive tract and delivers them to the cells of the body. It is also an essential part of the immune system that maintains fluid levels, fights infection and produces disease fighting white blood cells.  59    

19 Body maintenance: Understanding how the body is maintained each day is the missing motivation for most persons who are trying to fix a broken body or stay healthy.

The body is programmed for maintaining a functional system. Our bodies are constantly rebuilding themselves. You really are not the same person that you were last year. The body replaces the lining of the stomach about every five days, the skin in about a month, the skeleton about every three months, the liver about every six weeks and the red blood cells circulate for about 120 days before being replaced by new cells. What you do today affects the body that you will have tomorrow. That can be good or bad. The new body that you are building today is affected by the food that you eat, the waste that you eliminate, by the air that you breath, the liquids that you drink, and by the stress that you feel and how you respond to it. Everything that you do affects the new body that you are building for yourself. A long-term acid diet creates a toxic environment at the cellular level. If the cells can’t function, the body ceases to function. On the other hand, a healthy diet creates an environment that is conducive to cellular and total health.  60 

20. The mind-brain has memory, works like a computer, solves problems and stores memory, hence plasticity: To survive the mind needs to learn something new all the time. It never stops wanting to learn but when it fails to get stimulating new adventures and experiences, it falls asleep, ready to be awakened. The brain can perform numerous tasks that are not well defined; it is the mind that coordinates body functions, functioning as a miniature computer and even solves problems. It is the mind in the brain that stores memory, recalls images, and even anticipates mental telepathy. Some of these functions may be controversial at this time, but this is the mind-brain aspect of plasticity.   61  

Dr. Daniel Amen's views the brain as: "A piece of brain tissue the size of a grain of sand contains 100,000 neurons and 1 billion synapses, all “talking” to one another. Information in your brain travels at about 268 miles per hour, unless of course you are drunk, then things really slow down. The brain loses on average 85,000 brain cells a day. That is what causes aging. With appropriate forethought, however, you can reverse that trend and dramatically slow the aging process and increase your mental agility."   62   

Changes in brain cells in those over age 70 can contribute to Alzheimer's disease [AD], dementia and memory loss. Dr. Khan defines "Alzheimer's disease as the formation of abnormal deposits of protein in the brain. These are called plaques and tangles, and they are made up of two key proteins: amyloid and tau. Although amyloid and tau are present in healthy brains, these occur in much greater detail in Alzheimer's."  63 

Neurologist Lisa Genova points out that "The plaques and tangles cause inflammation, thereby damaging the synapses and disrupt nerve communication in the brain. A crucial neural transport protein called “tau” twists itself into something called “tangles,” which choke off the neurons from the inside." Over time, these tangles and tau reach what Genova refers to as the tipping point, causing cell death. Now Alzheimer's advanced stage has begun. So .... if you have a mild or more progressive AD, it is the result of losing synapses. You still have a whole lot of good synapses left. New learning can create new synapses to replace the broken ones and this process can postpone the symptoms.  64   

Another phenomenon of the brain and how we function is plasticity. It is more than just about the brain, it is about how the mind-mental-brain functions. All humans seek new adventures like camping, playing games, visiting another country, sports and learning new things. Children are continuously learning new things and so their brain is continuously exploring new things. Plasticity requires the brain to be continuously stimulated or active; or the brain withers slowly, eventuating in early mental deterioration and even Alzheimer's disease.

Plasticity is a new way of explaining that the brain is thirsty for new adventures and experiences at all stages of life. The brain wants to be continuously busy learning new things. By learning something new, you build new synapses and slow down the possibility of Alzheimer's Disease. But when a person stops learning, thinking that he/she knows it all .... as when they graduate from high school or college or they are too busy doing the routines of married life, they get into a rut so to speak; that is, when the brain is unhappy and begins to fall asleep. That is when the frustrated brain becomes broken and dies.

Plasticity thrusts the human brain into a higher level of thinking and functioning!  65  The brain can perform numerous tasks that are not well defined; it is the mind that coordinates body functions, functioning as a miniature computer, and even solve problems. It is the mind in the brain that stores memory, recalls images, and even anticipates mental telepathy. All these functions may be controversial at this time, but this is mind-brain aspect of plasticity.

A other phenomenon of the brain-mind in early childhood is that the mind-brain seems to have a built-in moral compass. This moral compass is awakened in children of six to 10 years who seem to recognize good from bad values better than adults. This is an example of the mind-brain striving for perfection. The mind-brain seems to be programmed to use a guidance system of morality for helping the body and brain survive. Unfortunately, the moral guidance system in children often changes as they get older, often getting addicted to power and money, thereby digress-interfering with the natural mind-brain for moral wellbeing.

Scientists now recognize that the body has three brains: in the brain itself, one in the digestive system   66  and one in the heart. 

21. The body is electric: Without electricity, you wouldn't be reading this article right now, because your brain wouldn't work. Everything we do is controlled and enabled by electrical signals running through our bodies. An electrical charge is jumping from one cell to the next until it reaches its destination.  67     

Electricity makes your body work. Every second of every day, your body conducts and generates billions of tiny electrical impulses. Messages travel down the spinal cord from the brain to the muscles, organs and glands. Synapses in the brain fire and send signals between neurons. All of these and more constitute little electrical currents within the body. Without these impulses, not a single muscle would be able to function…your heart wouldn't beat, your brain wouldn't work.  68

We live in a world of earth electricity. It may seem amazing that we can survive with all the earth electricity around us. It is the Earth's magnetic field [EMF] that causes a compass needle to always point north and helps birds fly south for the winter. But we humans are also electronic machines and have lived in harmony with earth's electronic magnetic forces for thousands of years. It's important to note that these electric fields exist everywhere in nature.

However, Electro Magnetic Forces [EMF] can also be man-made, created when an electrical current flows in transmission lines and homes. Since 1920, the harnessing of commercial electricity has mushroomed us into the nano-high technology era that has created electric transmission lines, TVs, computers and even electric vehicles in such high numbers that these are now flooding our bodies with electro-magnetic forces [EMF] and blue light that are toxic to our bodies. These toxic machines are incubating chronic diseases and disorders that are being ignored by governments, politicians and industry. This new century has thrust us into a dangerous lifestyle with no safety answers.

22. The cardiovascular system and heart: The heart needs a balance of potassium and magnesium and seldom wears out, although the arteries often get plugged up, causing stroke. Stroke occurs when bad animal fat deposits on the inner lining of the artery, slowing blood flow to the heart, brain or other organs. Plugged up arteries increase blood pressure.

The heart has its own brain that allows the heart to adjust pumping blood-oxygen to the brain, heart and muscles. The heart sends electrical waves outside the body and these waves can act as emotions that can affect those nearby. The heart has intuition, like the expression: "thinking with your heart" and senses feelings of others.  69 

23. The liver is a chemical factory: The liver is the most complex organ in the body, a chemical factory that performs a variety of essential survival functions: produces substances that break down fats and makes good cholesterol; converts glucose to glycogen; converts ammonia into urea [the main substance of urine]; makes certain amino acids [the building blocks of proteins]; produces blood clotting proteins; filters harmful substances from the blood [such as synthetic drugs, pesticides, household chemicals, alcohol, nicotine, caffeine, etc.]; stores vitamins A, D, E , K, folate, vitamin B-12 and minerals such as copper and iron; recycles red blood cells; and maintains a proper level of glucose in the blood. It has a toxic-poison monitoring and detoxification system that instantly recognizes poisonous substances like synthetic chemical nutrient supplements, drugs, alcohol, environmental gases, and metals like lead, mercury and radiation and excretes these as poisons. It also makes its own body antibiotics, enzymes and hormones from whole plant foods.  70   

24.mirro image Drug and poison recognition: The body recognizes the difference between synthetic chemical drugs, antibiotics and plant derived nutrients. [The illustration on the left illustrates this] Our bodies can use only amino acids in foods that are of the ‘left-handed’ variety, or L-amino acids [with very rare exceptions], that fit onto specifically shaped receptors in cells. This effect is known as chirality or mirror image.  71  The best way to think about the difference is this: your hands may look identical —bones, veins, fingers — yet you can’t put a left-handed glove on your right hand.  72   The left hand as a substance is accepted by the body while the right hand is rejected as a toxin. If a drug is to be accepted by the body it must be developed as a glove for a left hand.  73  

The information about mirror image or chirality applies to foods, synthetic nutrients and drug medications. If the left glove does not fit the mirror image of the substance, then the body excretes it! The synthetic and drug forms are dangerous because one can get a higher concentrated serving of the artificial drug, causing an overload with a drug like opium that cannot be excreted fast enough from the body. The higher dosage is usually without all the supporting co-factors, thereby causing illness and disorders.  74 

The body recognizes whole food complexes: but not individual, isolate or synthetic chiral mirror images. Synthetic vitamin supplements are recognized by the human body as aliens or toxins and are excreted from the body.

25.Body has its own chemical lab: Your body can recognize the difference between synthetic substances and natural plant derived substances and tries to protect you. 75  Many nutritional supplements are usually synthesized from non-plant chemicals. These synthetics are recognized by the body as toxins and not absorbed. On the other hand, supplements derived from plants are recognized as good for the body. Yes, you have a built-in chemical laboratory like system that works to prevent you from ingesting or smelling poisonous substances and getting sick. You body's maintenance system is coordinated with your chemical lab and triggers your body to expel these poisonous toxins out of the body by vomiting, having diarrhea and getting sick and disabled.

26. Sunlight: activates the nerves in the eye that stimulate the pineal gland to regulate adaptation to night-day changes, circadian rhythm, enhance the immune system, regulate reproductive hormones and sleep.  76  77  Although we know very little about the functions of the pineal gland, it is sunlight that energizes this gland. The sun provides the energy vibration waves, or photons, that help make plant food and also ignite the process of the skin making essential hormone D. Sunlight is essential for survival. We ignore the sun but cannot live without it.

27. Sleep recharges the brain and body: The brain is much more active at night than during the day. We actually cycle five times through four distinct sleep phases. During sleep the brain heals, flushes out daytime toxin wastes, sorts out the many images and information stored as memory during the day and organizes these as new memory. This is working memory where data from your senses is brought into the brain, interpreted, and sorted accordingly. Everything you hear, see, taste, smell, and touch goes through the frontal lobe and is processed and sorted based on a lot of various criteria. It is during REM sleep that the mind-brain can be creative and solve problems. 78  Without sleep for one day, the brain gets tired and the person loses ability to concentrate. Actually, mentally concentrated work can exhaust the brain in four or more hours. A person without sleep for three days will die.

28. Lungs and Shallow breathing: Humans die without oxygen in 10 minutes. Insufficient oxygen can cause one to get dizzy and faint. When you breath shallow, you connect with surrounding upper lobes of the lungs that have very few blood vessels to absorb or store oxygen. Shallow breathing not only results in less oxygen to the body .... it also allows pools of dead air to remain in the bronchial tubes and lungs and provides a home for dangerous bacteria that can cause pneumonia and pleurisy. This is especially true for those recovering from surgery and seniors. On the other hand, deep breathing, as when exercising, connects with the blood vessels that surround the lower lobes of the lung and allows deeper oxygen intake.  79 

29. Falling asleep for a few minutes while watching TV: Dozing off or falling asleep for a few minutes during the day is an unexplained phenomena. One theory suggests that dozing off may be due to the brain getting tired and exhausted, short of oxygen. The brain temporarily automatically shutting down for several minutes. This author sensed that it seemed as though the body forgot to breath. When he sensed that he was going to doze off, he started to inhale deeply. Doing so postponed falling asleep. We need more research on this issue.

I, this author, kept dozing off every few minutes while lying down and watching TV. Why? Well, I experimented and decided to inhale deeply when I felt like falling asleep. Surprise! I didn’t doze off. Then I continued to inhale all the time and I did not doze off. My theory is that in my example, the brain was not getting enough oxygen and went in protective mode, shallow breathing, to slow the body down. At a critical time the body survival instinct took over and I started to fall asleep.

30. Food is best medicine: The right kind of food is essential for healthy survival: The human body has survived for thousands of years on food, not medical therapy. Food is man's best medicine.  80  The body has a great ability to compensate when nutrients are in short supply.

31. Survival and Nutrient compensation: The body is programmed to survive a "lingering" or "survival" life for many months and years when it is deficient in nutrients, sunshine, and physical activity.  81  A person can survive for a month or longer without eating food. The hungry body converts body fat and even protein into energy as a means to survive.

There is no 'balance for health' in the human body as suggested by WHO definition.  82  Most persons harbor and incubate disorders and diseases! The WHO general health theory overlooked the precision and delicate balance of nutrient fine tuning or nutrient balancing that, in turn, could result in optimal wellbeing or, if deficient, incubate disease states. It is safe to say that if there are no visible signs of disease, in spite of the body sending signals as symptoms and the inflicted persons not recognizing the symptoms, that the body is not working properly, that most persons and medical doctors would assume such a person to be healthy. However, in real life, the body of a person appearing to be in good health and functioning, may not necessarily be well; the degree of wellbeing is compensated, hidden and medically undiagnosed.

32. The problem with vitamin-mineral supplements: is that many vitamin and mineral supplements are manufactured in the laboratory synthetically with chemicals that usually do not come from natural food sources.  83  These are made in a lab with the hope that these will mimic the way natural vitamins act in our bodies. Instead, these are right mirror synthetic vitamins that lack the transporter substances and co-factors [ helpers ] associated with naturally-occurring food vitamins. Synthetically made supplements will not be absorbed by the body.

33. We need daily antioxidants found in special foods: The first antioxidant of life, such as superoxide dismutase [SOD], is the mother's gift to the baby at birth. This is our first and most important line of defense against oxygen-derived free radicals or body wastes. SOD helps babies survive; then rapidly declines after age one.  After age one, we also have a backup survival system of getting antioxidants from eating foods that help guard against disease and extend life.  84  

So what are antioxidants? Lets start with what we all do every moment of the day. We breathe oxygen all the time. Oxygen is essential for our body to breakdown food or oxidize it and release energy [ ATP in the mitochondria ] in cells. This demand for oxygen is referred to as oxidative stress. Without oxygen you die!

Oxygen reacting in the body is a similar process that also occurs in nature, as when oxygen reacts with iron, causing iron to rust; referred to as oxidation. A similar rusting happens to our cells as when oxygen releases ATP as energy in the small mitochondria cells of our body.

In a much similar fashion, rusting or oxidation takes place in all of our body activities. Our bodies are constantly breaking down sugar [carbohydrates] and releasing energy. In doing so, we are always releasing many waste products, one of which are free radicals. Free radicals are bouncing around looking to steal an electron from nearby cells. In the process of looking to steal an electron, the radicals are bombarding normal cells all the time! And this often damages normal body cells when there are not enough antioxidants.

How do you stop this constant barrage inside your body? The answer of course is getting more antioxidants. The great thing about antioxidants is that they can give these free radicals an electron – neutralizing and stabilizing them. While releasing an electron, the antioxidant has become a free radical itself [ although a less dangerous one ]. This means that the antioxidant needs to be regenerated and it does this by borrowing an electron from another antioxidant. This regeneration becomes a constant process as long as there are ample antioxidants available.

This is why we need a fresh supply of different antioxidants, as some antioxidants will only be regenerated by other specific antioxidants. So if you only get one type of antioxidant, like vitamin D [sunlight], then you are actually not doing yourself any favors. This is because it will become a free radical itself, and with few other antioxidants around to regenerate it, left-over radicals will damage your cells. Also some antioxidants may only work in certain parts of the body. For example, vitamin C is concentrated in blood plasma, connective tissues and within the cytoplasm of cells. So each antioxidant is highly compartmentalized, like having its own zone of defense – like football. Thus you need to ingest daily a large range of super high antioxidants found in blueberries, ground flax seeds, beets, fennel, broccoli and nutients Lipoic Acid, Vitamin E, Vitamin C, Glutathione, CoQ10, selenium, Zeaxanthin, AMPK and sunlight.  85 

34. Human body is made of a light source called Photons:  86  All living biological systems, including humans, have the exact blueprint of our physical bodies stored in a field of light, referred to a biophotons.

Biophotons, or ultra weak photon emissions of biological systems, are weak electromagnetic waves in the optical range of the light. All living cells of plants, animals and human beings emit biophotons which cannot be seen by the naked eye but can be measured by special equipment.

Photons or light waves are absorbed through our eyes, skin and also from the foods we eat. However, foods don’t contain enough of this form of light to sustain our health. That’s why it’s important to get exposure to sunlight every day.

You may have heard of a concept in nature called bioluminescence whereby an animal like a jellyfish or firefly emits light. Biophotons fall into a similar realm of bioluminescence.

Our cells emit light and this light is constantly sending and receiving information at quantum speed of light. This is the new understanding of how cells communicate with each other in the body.

We also know that we have at least some ability to affect this light, as by eating raw fresh plants. Fresh plants are also full of vibrating sunshine energy or photons that the human body recognizes and uses. But when original nutrient food in processed food is altered and usually stored, it has no photons. Likewise a vegetable that is transported and then stored for several days loses most if not all of its photons or live energy. Photon energy in fresh plants lasts as long as the plants are raw and fresh.

Our vitality is directly related to the quality and quantity of biophotons that are present in our body. A healthy body emits far fewer biophotons, whereas someone who is sick or suffering from mental issues emits far more.

Biophoton emission also lends scientific support to some unconventional methods of healing based on concepts of homeostasis (self-regulation of the organism),such as various somatic therapies, homeopathy and acupuncture.

Biophotons suggest an entirely new picture of how the living body works. The human body is light!

35. Sunshine is essential nutrient: Your body is designed to get the hormone D it needs by producing it when your bare skin is exposed to sunlight. The two main ways to get vitamin D are by exposing your bare skin to sunlight or by taking vitamin D-3 supplements. You can’t get the right amount of vitamin D your body needs from food.  87  This sunshine hormone is essential in over 300 body functions; one functions less when deficient in hormone D.

36. Body needs water: Drinking a glass of water on an empty stomach upon waking up, before breakfast, restores the water balance in the body within a few minutes. During night sleep, the body uses water to filter toxins that accumulated throughout the day. Not much water is left in the body to clear away all this waste by the time you wake up, so replenishing the body with water as soon as you wake up, before breakfast, will give your kidneys the fluid they need to flush out [eliminate] toxins that are clogging up your system.  88 

37. Bowel & urination movement: Normal bowel movement and urination are programmed urges. Defecation should be once a day. Two to three times would be best as the feces stuff would have very little time to harden and ferment. Hence, the bowel movement should be soft but not of diarrheal consistency. One of the colon’s main jobs is to absorb water from fecal material, and send it back [recycle] into the body. If the colon moves slowly, then the stool will be hard and dry. If the colon is moving rapidly, then the stool will be wet and loose. One can prevent constipation by eating a rich fiber diet like fresh green vegetables, fruits, ground flax seeds and drinking plenty of water. A red meat and potatoes diet makes for constipation!

As a rule, it is best to try going to the toilet first thing in the morning or about 30 minutes after a meal. This is because the movement [propulsion] of stools through the lower bowel is greatest in the mornings and after meals [due to the astrocolic reflex].  89  Go when you get the urge to defecate or urinate and do not postpone the urge!  You can train this urge to defecate after eating breakfast. Exercise is a natural laxative and helps move waste material in the digestive system.

38. Colon has good and bad bacteria: The colon is a large intestine and absorbs water and salts from waste material that have traveled through the gut. Bacteria in the colon break down the remaining material, which then exits the body through the rectum and anus as feces.

 More than 1000 good and bad microbes that live symbiotically in the colon. We provide a home for bacteria and bacteria, in return, provide us with an amazing array of useful functions like recycling water from waste matter, make vitamins, help digest food, house an immune system, and help you to rid toxic wastes from the body. Many bacteria are not only useful, but are essential to life.  90

If your digestive system is not doing its job, it can make you feel bad, feel uncomfortable and even sick.  91  All this should be simple enough to understand, in spite of skeptics who may be startled with all this good and bad information about human waste.

Approximately 80 to 90% of diseases originate in the digestive system. If the normal balance of 80 - 85% good and 15 - 20 % bad bacteria is disrupted, then the bad bacteria multiply and cause many of our illnesses and diseases.  92  Today, most of us show the reverse ratio; therefore, it’s no coincidence that the incidences of chronic and degenerative diseases have multiplied dramatically since World War II.

The digestive system acts as a second brain that not only interprets sickness but also is the real home of the immune system.  93  When the immune system and the gastrointestinal system are not functioning properly, you begin to feel common everyday symptoms of not feeling good, such as  bloating, abdominal cramping, constipation and diarrhea and symptoms of illness such as depression, skin rashes, eczema, asthma, autism,  headaches and even cancer.  94 

The food we eat supplies energy and nutrients to our physical body and the good and bad bacteria in the colon.

Good foods, like vegetables, fruits and nuts, feed good bacteria that enhance metabolism, regulate the immune system, synthesize vitamins, ferment carbohydrates and recycle liquid from the feces as water.

Bad foods and a lifestyle of eating processed, junk, fat and sweet foods nourish the bad bacteria that lower immunity and silently incubate chronic diseases over a long time. Bad bacteria are very aggressive and with a bad diet, will over run the good bacteria, causing a dis-balance of 80 % bad bacteria and 20% good bacteria. There is a range of evidence, including strong epidemiological and compelling evolutionary evidence, suggesting that pathogens are linked causatively to chronic diseases.  95  96 97  

Bacteria in the gut need to be balanced out with food.

The implication for humans is that colon bacteria can predispose one to chronic and autoimmune diseases as well as wellbeing and how long humans can live.

39. Good germs in the gut can fix a broken - sick human body:  These can enhance the healing process. Good germs in the gut can fix a broken - sick human body.  98 

40. Metabolic disease: particularly type 2 diabetes, is correlated with having bacteria that penetrate the mucus lining of the colon.  99  For example, researchers have found two bacteria that may turn switches on/off for managing the metabolic process and obesity. Bacterium A. muciniphila, digests the glycoproteins in mucus known as mucins, which are secreted by intestinal epithelial cells, are significantly lower in obese and overweight children and in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. 100 

Another bacteria, Akkermansia reduces inflammation and could also prevent overweight and obesity. Changing the diet, what people eat, can help them lose and regulate their body weight.   101  102   

If you want to lose weight, then you need to learn about the new link between bacteria in the large intestine and the food you eat. New research tells us that it is bacteria that can control how we gain or lose body weight. Obesity may be caused by a certain kind of bacteria as well as eating too much or exercising too little. 103 

41. Priority for Triage Theory of nutrition and survival: Dr. Bruce Ames, Emeritus Professor at University of California, Berkeley, summarizes this:  104 105

"A large body of evidence indicates that deficiencies in many micronutrients cause DNA damage, such as chromosome breaks. Some of these micronutrient deficiencies also cause mitochondrial decay with oxidant leakage and cellular aging and are associated with late-onset diseases such as cancer. Ames also introduced a theory that provides a rationale for why micronutrient deficiencies may lead to greater risk of chronic diseases such as cancer. He proposed that DNA damage and late-onset diseases are consequences of a “triage allocation response” to micronutrient scarcity. Episodic shortages of micronutrients were common during evolution, as natural selection favors short-term survival at the expense of long-term health. Ames hypothesized that short-term survival was achieved by allocating scarce micronutrients by triage, in part through an adjustment of the binding affinity of proteins for required micronutrients. The hypothesis is testable, and, if correct, it predicts that micronutrient deficiencies triggering the triage allocation response would accelerate cancer, aging, and neural decay but would leave critical short-term metabolic functions, such as ATP production, intact."

Dr. Ames’s Triage Theory of optimal nutrition states that the human body prioritizes the use of vitamins and minerals when it is getting an insufficient amount to keep functioning: 106   

The term “triage” is borrowed from the field of urgent medical care. Triage means deciding which patients to treat when faced with limited resources. When presented with more sick patients than there are resources to treat them all at the same time, doctors must decide which patients to treat first based on the severity of their condition.

So the patient in cardiac arrest comes first, followed by the patient with a hemorrhaging wound in need of stitches, then the patient with severe influenza, and so on. This provides the best chance for all the patients to survive.

Our bodies evolved to do pretty much the same triage thing. Faced with limited nutritional resources, the human physiology must “decide” which biological functions to prioritize in order to give the total organism—and the species—the best chance to survive and reproduce."

42. Memory and holograms: Your brain stores your memories of images, information and conversations. It is even amazing that you can usually recall these anytime. Scientists have discovered that the brain does all this with holograms. Holograms are faster than light vibrating waves that display only a part of the whole image. At night, the brain filters out the important images, music, activities, information and stores only the important ones in the brain as holograms. Human brains can store many memories as holograms in very little space. We recall brain holograms as memory.    107       

43. The human body has its own monitoring 'wellness' feedback system: Medical science has several computorized systems to monitor blood pressure, heart rate, breathing, oxygen and other body chemicals. For example, Bodymedia, maker of an arm band, called Sensewear,  enables automated monitoring of calories burned, dietary intake, duration of physical activity and sleep.  108  But none do the job as efficiently as the human body does. 

The body's own feedback system automatically tells the brain how the different parts of the body are doing all the time. Injury and infection send signals to the mind-brain that include pain, inflammation, skin redness, skin itchiness, itchy nose, reflux, allergies, indigestion, vomiting, sneezing, watery eyes and tears, fever, diarrhea, headache, earache, depression, constipation, hunger, thirst and fatigue; as well as feeling good, full of energy and feeling happy. Body senses like eye sight, hearing, balance, smell, taste, and feeling protect us from danger. Millions of small sensors also tell cells of the danger to wellbeing.

44. Skin: is the largest organ in the body and is also the mirror of what is happening inside the body. The skin reflects the inside conditions of health as clear skin or unhealthy as skin disorders. It reacts to environmental hazards and toxic chemicals already inside your body. Since it has fat cells, the skin can absorb many substances and dangerous chemicals that are also fat soluble. The fat cells also absorb sunlight that helps to make hormone D-3.  109 

45. The eye: floats in a clear fluid called aqueous humor that maintains normal eye pressure. Normal pressure in the eye is programmed to normally drain the fluid from the sides of the eye and stabilize the aqueous pressure. 110  Such pressure maintenance helps us to see clearly. But when the eye is not draining properly then the osmotic pressure in the eye builds up. Over time, the eyesight deteriorates and we begin to suffer from macular degeneration, a gradual loss of central vision in the macula of the retina in the eye.

You should be aware that your body is programmed for the eye to function and heal on its own .... providing the body has adequate amounts of nutrients and oxygen. But as we age, the eye gradually begins macular degeneration and we may have vision problems. One such vision problem is dizziness when the eye and brain do not get enough oxygen. The eye is connected to the ear and helps with body balance.

46. Sinuses, mucus and nose:  111  Sinuses are hollow cavities on either side of the nose that are filled with mucus and connect to the nose and nasal passages. These help the nose filter out bacteria, viruses, dust, cigarette smoke, pollen and other chemicals and secrete these impurities as mucus that flows through the nose. Sinuses also warm up the air.

Sinuses are also a place where bacteria and viruses live. The brain senses infection and causes inflammation, stuffy nose, sneezing, fever, headache and a running nose. The mucus is clear when clearing impurities; but becomes yellowish color when the lungs are infected. When this happens, you need to drink water to keep sinuses moist.

You have several different sinuses above and below your eyes, as well as behind your nose. Any of these air-filled cavities can hurt when you have a sinus infection, Inflammation and swelling.

47. Dry mouth & saliva:  112  113  Dry mouth, also called xerostomia, is the condition of not having enough saliva to keep the mouth wet and lubricated. Saliva, or spit, is made by the salivary glands and is very important for a healthy mouth. It keeps harmful germs in check, moistens and breaks down food, washes away food particles from the teeth, gums, epiglottis and helps people with swallowing.

A dry mouth: can occur when we do not drink enough water and/or when the salivary glands do not secrete enough saliva, especially in older persons. Many persons, not realizing it, sleep and breath through the mouth, causing dryness of the mouth.

Saliva has a number of vitamins and functions. Chewing increases food salivary flow, secreting the digestive enzyme amylase that begins digestion.

Adults secrete about three pints of saliva each day that contains antibacterial substances that protect teeth from cavities. Saliva also functions as an overall lubricant for the mouth, preventing food from sticking to your teeth and gums.

Babies are born with the instinct to suck milk from mother's breast. As babies get older, they adapt sucking to drinking water. So when you feel your mouth is dry, sip water slowly and activate the salivary glands by sucking. Breath through your nose when sleeping.

48. Hearing: How do we hear? 114  115 

The ear is a marvelous architectural machine: The ear isn’t just the hearing organ. It is a complex system of parts that not only allow humans to hear, but also make it possible for humans to have space perception, balance and move, like walk. It interprets sound, helps with body balance, motion and has nerve connections to the eye, teeth, nose and brain.

Your ear consists of three major areas: outer ear, middle ear and inner ear. Sound waves pass through the outer ear and cause vibrations at the eardrum. The eardrum and three small bones of the middle ear amplify the vibrations as they travel to the inner ear. There, the vibrations pass through fluid in a snail-shaped structure in the inner ear (cochlea). Attached to nerve cells in the cochlea are thousands of tiny hairs that help translate sound vibrations into electrical signals that are transmitted to your brain. Your brain turns these signals into sound.

Hearing loss occurs gradually as we age (presbycusis). Almost half the people in the United States older than age 65 have some degree of hearing loss. 116  Exposure to recreational activities with dangerously high noise levels include, gunshot, jet engines, snowmobiling, motorcycling, carpentry or listening to loud music can damage the cells of the inner ear.

Exposure to loud noise may cause wear and tear on the hairs or nerve cells in the cochlea [inner ear] that send sound signals to the brain. When these hairs or nerve cells are damaged or missing, electrical signals aren't transmitted as efficiently, and hearing loss occurs. Higher pitched tones may become muffled to you. It may become difficult for you to pick out words against background noise. There may be gradual buildup of earwax that can block the ear canal and prevent conduction of sound waves. Earwax removal can help restore your hearing.

Much of our hearing problems have to do with low and high pitch sounds. Interpreting speech of someone with an accent or dialect is difficult when they do not pronunciation words properly. You can't reverse most types of hearing loss. However, pronouncing or enunciating words slowly can be very helpful to those with hearing problems.

49. Teeth and Face: Our dental system and face change with time:

A baby is born without teeth, then the first set of teeth grow in early childhood and these are replaced by a permanent adult set. We need teeth to eat and start digestion by chewing to break down food. Teeth also help us to talk and give appearance to our face. Since teeth stimulate the jaw bone to maintain good health, keeping your jaw bones healthy may be more important than keeping your teeth clean. But 7 out of 10 adults age 35 to 44 have lost at least one tooth and a quarter of those aged 65 or older [or about 20 million people] have lost all their permanent teeth.  117  Poor dental hygiene can result in loss of molar teeth.

Whenever a tooth is extracted, nature will move the gum bone that used to surround it. Teeth on either side will shift or tip into the empty space. If there is a tooth directly above or below the space it will over erupt [tend to fall out], as there will not be anything to prevent it from coming out of the gum tissue. The majority of jaw bone degeneration will occur within the first six months and will slowly continue for years. The movement of the adjacent teeth will not occur immediately; rather it will become noticeable after three to five years.

If you have missing teeth and you do not replace these immediately, tooth movements will occur. These movements may create gum problems and /or decay and could lead to the loss of other teeth. As you lose more teeth, you will be forced to chew in other areas, and this often leads to tooth fracture from overloading, excessive wear and/or TMJ [jaw joint] problems.

People are usually unaware that bone, gum and facial changes are due to movement or the loss of teeth. Facial changes occur naturally as part of the aging process. When the teeth are lost, this process is grossly accelerated with more rapid facial aging. Lost teeth need immediate attention.

50. The moral brain appears to have a built-in protective morality guidance system:  118  It senses to do the right thing for the body it is in, protecting it and extending biological life as well as its own brain life. The body has been programmed to maximize the inner potential for excellence, perfection and optimal wellbeing. This partly explains why children ages 4 to 8 strive idealistically to have a good values.  

Psychological and neuroscience research both tell us that morality, our mental ability to tell right from wrong in our behaviors and the behaviors of others, is a product of evolution. Morality has been passed on through the course of evolution because it helps us to live in large social groups by enhancing our ability to get along and interact with others. “Building blocks” of morality, such as sensing fairness, experiencing empathy, and judging others’ harmful and helpful actions, can be observed in infancy, before a child’s social environment would be able to have a strong influence. Specific parts of the human brain are involved in moral reasoning – both the kind that happens very quickly and the kind that is thought out.

Our morality has been formed over thousands of years from the combination of both our genes and our culture, rather than just one or the other. This genetic and cultural evolution has shaped our brains to care for others, react to those who try to harm us, and to create moral rules that help us to live together successfully.

Neurophilosophist Patricia Churchland, in her book What Neuroscience Tells Us about Morality, points out that our brain has evolved to understand that exclusion, like aggression, isn’t appropriate behavior. Aggression is not of any benefit to us. The vast majority of us come into the world knowing that violence and isolation aren’t good for us or others. And we know this because there’s an essential molecule that not only tells us so but also encourages us to practice positive social behavior. We’re talking here about oxytocin. It’s the molecule that drives the moral brain as well. It’s the one that builds trust, attention, care, affection, and the importance of social bonds. Cooperation, respect, and altruism bring dignity to us as human beings. 119

Morality is a product of evolution but that does not mean that it is set in stone and is totally unchangeable. The culture in which we live also influences what we think is right and wrong.

51. Bioavailability: Bioavailability is usually a medical lab term used to measure the amount of nutrient or drug absorbed into the blood. But the real measure is how much the body cells, not the blood, actually absorb. Depending on how your digestive enzymes are secreted with age, you might absorb anywhere from 10 to 90% of a given nutrient from a given food!  120  So the body does not absorb all the amount of recommended daily nutrients [RDI].

52. Human Biodiversity: 121 We are biologically unique because of our genes, microbiomes and cells. We differ from each other and even grow into being different each day and year. Each person is unique in their DNA, eye color, finger prints, facial features and body functions. No one size fits everyone! You’re not even the same person today biologically that you were when you were six — or sixteen years of age. For one thing, your patterns of gene expression as an adult are quite different from what you experienced as a toddler. Each individual human is biologically diverse when compared to all other humans and even across his or her own lifetime. Our genes express us as we age.

53 Extrasensory perception, intuition, telepathy and quantum biology: The laws of quantum physics define the human body as a quantum system, with the smallest vibrations and energy units that communicate with each other. Quantum biology, as the name implies, is the study of quantum effects, specifically nonlocal quantum effects, in living systems. The body has the ability to function inside as well as outside the body.

As children, we are born with a sense of intuition, telepathy, out of body experiences and extra sensory perception. These children are labeled as gifted or savants and they can perform super advanced skills in mathematics, art and music. Children's mind-brain often have dreams outside of the adult world. This mind-brain gift in every newborn is gradually inadvertently suppressed and replaced by adults who slowly steer the child's mind to deal with reality of the physical environment.

Most of us, by late childhood, have unintentionally rendered ourselves mind-brain blind to everything except what our senses reveal; that is our physical body and the physical world around us. From earliest childhood onward we were encouraged to learn to operate exclusively within the physical world and as we did so our brain was wired more and more with new neural circuits to support only that purpose. By the time most of us reach our teens, all of our brain’s neural circuitry has been wired to focus our mind’s eye view of attention, thoughts, memories, emotions, and actions on the physical world around us and on our thousands of reactions to what’s happening in it    122.   

We can rewire our brains to support subtler perception, intuitive thinking, and higher feeling. We know now that the brain is astonishingly changeable and exhibits a high degree of what is called neuroplasticity. Even as few as half a dozen repetitions of a new behavior can cause a new circuit to form in the brain to support that new behavior   123

The first and most well-established discovery of quantum biology was an explanation for the amazing efficiency of photosynthesis. Chlorophyll molecules, when transferring the sun’s energy, have molecules vibrating in perfect synchronization with one another. They do so by forming liquid crystals; i.e. the crystals align in exactly the same way, in exactly the same phase (like rowers stroking in perfect rhythm), and in exactly the same frequency. This perfectly coordinated and sustained liquid crystal structure turns all the chlorophyll molecules into a kind of biological superconductor; thereby enabling the super-efficient transfer of sunlight quanta [amount] from one chlorophyll molecule to the next. The phenomenon is called resonant energy transfer and can only happen when all those molecules are in a state of quantum coherence or perfection   124.

From these and other discoveries, we see that a new quantum biological model of a high level of human function is emerging. While well-known conventional biochemical processes are unquestionably taking place continuously in living organisms, there is another, subtler process taking place as well; the liquid crystal structures within our cells and tissues, including DNA, phase in and out of quantum coherence or perfection, thus allowing the information from our subtle energy body to Intelligently coordinate the life processes taking place in our physical body   125.

liquis crystal Our living body is an incredibly colorful, liquid crystalline continuum, with all parts rapidly intercommunicating and colors flashing, and acting as a coherent whole.  One has been led to believe that intercommunication in large animals like ourselves depends on the nervous system controlled by the brain. However, that may be only half the story, as nerves do not reach all parts of the body, and animals without a nervous system nevertheless have no problems in acting as a coherent or perfect whole   126. Our quantum crystal liquid mind-brain can communicate with all cells inside the body and also with states outside the body like spirits or soul, and space. Since we are made of crystal liquid, quantum opens opportunities to communicate with others as mental telepathy and with the hidden world in space.

54 Human body has no direct protection against cosmic radiation: Radiation from space is called cosmic radiation, which is constantly hitting the planet earth. Our solar system’s sun and other stars in the galaxy emit a constant stream of cosmic radiation.

Fortunately we have been shielded from cosmic space radiation by the earth’s atmosphere and magnetic shield. But early space travel astronauts did not have adequate shielding in space.

Multiple studies have shown that astronauts flying space shuttle missions for 12 days had DNA mutations. Additional adverse effects included bone-density loss, neurovestibular changes, and muscle atrophy   127  128  129.

The main study used blood cells collected 20 years ago from 14 relatively young astronauts who flew space Shuttle missions between 1998 and 2001. Blood samples were collected 10 days before flight, the day of landing, and 3 days after landing. These samples were stored at 80 °C for 20 years and analyzed. The blood cells changed and mutated    130. Space travel is hazardous.

55. AMPK enzyme metabolism: This section is an addition to the previous sections #15 Homeostasis and #40 Metabolic disease.

When you are playing a sport like soccer, you begin getting tired toward the end of the game. A magic bullet, AMPK, kicks in, giving you the extra energy to finish the game. How does your body do it? This is what this section is about!

AMPK is short for "adenosine 5 monophosphate-activated protein kinase." It is an energy sensor enzyme that is present in all living things. AMPK is influenced by genetics, extreme cold, age, diet, sleep, stress and exercise habits.

AMPK is found in every cell of the body that controls how our cells behave and is the link between metabolic disease, inflammation, and longevity. It can activate weight loss! AMPK tells your cells to stop storing fat and start burning it for energy, especially around the abdomen. It can help lose fat weight. This “switch” tells our cells when to store and convert excess calories into fat, and when to burn stored fat. The body's master regulator of energy metabolism is also referred to as "metabolism reset button."   131   132   

AMPK health benefits include reducing inflammation, supporting weight loss, regulating energy usage, maintaining homeostasis, improving insulin sensitivity, improving physical performance, helping with hormone production, fertility and supporting healthy aging.

Life Extension author James Robbins summarizes how AMPK works:   133

  • AMPK is the “switch” that is the link between metabolic disease, inflammation, and longevity. This “switch” tells our cells when to store excess calories, generate fat, or when to “burn fat” and use existing energy stores.
  • When switched “on,” AMPK triggers weight loss especially in the stomach area.
  • When cells are chronically over-nourished, as when you over eat, AMPK diminishes, resulting in unwanted weight gain, diabetes, degenerative disease and premature death.
  • As we age, AMPK signaling declines, which may quickly lead to an excess buildup of blood glucose and dangerous fat accumulation.

When AMPK is increased, the body kicks into high gear and functions with youthful vitality.

What’s encouraging is that research studies reveal people who don’t take care of themselves, including tobacco smokers and those who eat an unhealthy diet. This means that individuals who follow healthier lifestyles, which includes taking steps to activate AMPK, may add many more healthy years to their projected life spans.

Research about AMPK is like scratching the tip of the iceberg. We know very, very little about the benefits of AMPK. AMPK research represents a major advance in our ability to combat degenerative disease and obesity.  134

56. Women age twice as fast as men due to lack of estrogen Women age twice as fast as men from the menopause onwards; from the moment they lose estrogen. Hormone replacement therapy does not work for all women. It is a therapy that you have to personalize.  135

"When women reach the menopause, their entire physiology is transformed and yet we perceive them to age like men. Men have andropause, but that is irrelevant. The function of androgens is completely different. Androgens are important for everyone, both men and women, but they do not establish a life cycle as estrogen does in women. Men age because of habits, because of a sedentary lifestyle, just as women do, but women also age because they lose their physiological centrality."

57 Placebo effect:



The above list of how the human body works is not a complete summary of how the body works. But this list is a good start. It illustrates the scope and silent mystery of quantum biology.


The general public needs four keys to prevent diseases: practice more self-care and personal hygiene, eat proper food, balance the bacteria in the colon and understand how the body works. It is the general public's understanding of these four that is the key to preventing chronic diseases and making the health care system work and cost less.

The general public needs to be informed about how the body works and evolve self-care skills that are deemed critical and essential to dealing with the chronic disease crisis. Such education could start in public schools grades K-12 with regularly scheduled health education curriculum classes. But implementing health classes in public schools will not solve the riddle of how the body works. The school kids would bring home what they learned about nutrition and how the body works but mom would still cook the old fashioned way! Mom and dad need information about how the body works at the same time their children are getting it in public school.

Parents and adults need to receive similar 'How the body works' health education information as public school students by attending evening or weekend classes. Such classes could begin as updated first aid that focuses on self-help instead of the regular Red Cross program. The proposed main self help first aid package would be a health curriculum focusing on skills to treat minor injuries and illness, understanding how the human body works, that food is man's best medicine, nutrient density, colon bacteria can prevent diseases and that it is nutrients in food that are essential to prevent diseases. Each person needs the total preventive package to be empowered  136 and personally motivated to eat a healthy diet. The public needs economic incentives to attend 'how the body works' classes.

Self-care skills would minimize the public running to the emergency room or medical doctor for help for many minor disorders and infections.


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