Research on Silver Products 
This site is work in progress. It will be updated from time to time..
Complied by Walter Sorochan

How good is the research on ingesting silver products? What is good research anyway? These are the questions that need to be answered in order to interpret the information on this issue.

All new drugs and medical devices need proof that they are effective, as well as safe, before they can be approved for marketing. The approval process of doing so is the task of the Department of Food and Drug Administration or the FDA. [ FDA Approval process summary by Keenesaw State University The FDA requirements are intended to protect the public at large.
"FDA's decision whether to approve a new drug for marketing comes down to answering two questions:
1. Do the results of well-controlled studies provide substantial evidence of its effectiveness?
2. Do the results show that the product is safe under the explicit conditions of use in the proposed labeling? Here "safe" is a relative term; it means that the benefits of the drug appear to outweigh its risks.

These protocols require clinical researchers to formally investigate the drug in well-controlled studies and to supply some evidence that the drug is likely to be helpful. Such studies need to meet the FDA guidelines which include a cost benefit analysis to determine if the drug can be released to the public. The FDA determines that when the benefits outweigh the risks the FDA considers a drug safe enough to approve. So the purpose of clinical research is to determine the safety and efficacy of the Investigational New Drug (IND) for the treatment of a particular disease or condition in humans." [ The FDA drug approval process, Pagewise ]
FDA protocols require expensive controlled [ research ] studies that may cost up to $ 300,000,000 per study and take up to eight years to complete. Although this entire approval process is intended to be independent and scientific, it has often been flawed and tainted by drug money and vested interests. [ Hence, the many drug recalls in recent years. ] Critics: FDA Failing to Protect Americans   |   FDA Approves Controversial New Guidelines To Allow Drugmakers To Share Unapproved Drug Uses With Physicians   |   Criticism of the Food and Drug Administration   |   FDA Plans To Reduce Oversight Of Off-Label Drug Use Criticized By Medical Researchers  

The current health care system is broken and so is the FDA process of validating the safety of new products. We need to re-think how we investigate medications for safety and effectiveness. The current FDA process is ineffective in doing its job of protecting the public and it is stifling public health. In an attempt to adhere to scientific protocol in approving new health products, the FDA is bankrupting the health care system. The FDA is also unable to do its job!

Although control and double blind studies may be an ideal wish, there are more practical approaches to validating the use of new medications a, medical devices and silver products. The most obvious ones are “common sense” [ such as clinical studies and testimonials ] and history; which may not be as scientific but less expensive and more practical!  Then there is a saying: "The proof of the pudding is in the eating!" If you don't get sick then this pudding is safe.  No harm done! 

History validates silver: Silver was used by ancient Egyptians, Greeks and Romans over 2000 years ago. The Phoenicians are said to have stored water, wine and vinegar in silver bottles to prevent spoiling. Prior to 1850 and even in the early 1900s people would put silver dollars in milk bottles to prolong the milk's freshness. The point of referring to these early public uses of silver is to show that common sense prevailed without expensive research!

Prior to the introduction of antibiotics, colloidal silver was used as a germicide and disinfectant.  Before 1940, it was the antibiotic of choice by American doctors. 

Common sense validates silver: There are over 10 million persons in United States and Canada, and millions more in the rest of the world using silver as healing therapies. Medical healers in many countries use silver products in their medical practices, despite constraints from FDA and other regulating bodies. There is a lot of silver hypocrisy! So what is the common sense of this argument? Simply put, accepting silver for medicinal purposes has more to do with money and politics than research! So if one accepts this observation and premise, then research becomes somewhat of a bogus issue! Mind you, not that we should not do research about using silver products, but that the driving force behind having FDA refrain from approving silver products is motivated more by financial bias than common sense.

So putting aside the above arguments, what is the research on silver products?

Instead of FDA approved research [ 8 year control and double blind studies and millions of dollars ], we have scientific articles and studies dealing with silver products and manufacturing processes. 

Here is the incomplete list, as gathered from numerous sources, making numerous claims about the medical uses and health benefits of silver:

Articles, Studies and Research Papers

The following list of resources provide scientific information about Silver Sol as reported by Gordon Pederson:

  • United States Patent  LINK
  • HIV & Bird Flu Peer Reviewed Paper, by Gordon Pedersen  PDF
  • Bactericidal activity of combinations of Silver-Water Dispersion™ with 19 antibiotics against seven microbial strains, by A. de Souza  PDF
  • Life Extension of Flowers & Plants, by Josh Yates and Keith Moeller PDF
  • New Applications for Silver, by Michael DiRienzo  PDF
  • The Safety of Using Silver Solutions and the Risk of Argyria, by Keith Moeller  LINK
  • Silver Sol Improves Wound Healing: Case Studies in the Use of Silver Sol in Closing Wounds (Including MRSA), Prventing Infection, Inflammation, and Activiting Stem Cells, by Gordon Pedersen and Keith Moeller  PDF
  • Nano-Silver Proven Safe for Humans, by Keith Moeller  LINK
  • Silver Sol Improves Wound Healing By Destroying Bacteria, Viruses and Fungus, by Gordon Pedersen (presentation notes)  PDF
  • Silver Sol and the Successful Treatment of Hospital Acquired MRSA in Human Subjects With Serious Ongoing Infection, by Gordon Pedersen  LINK
  • Presentations from the A4M World Anti-Aging Congress & Exposition  LINK
  • Ultradilute Ag-aquasols with extraordinary bactericidal properties: role of the system Ag-O-H20, by Dr. Rustum Roy  PDF
  • Safey and Toxicity Summary Report PDf healthy again
Medical health benefits summary of references

Scientific Studies & Research Documents

University of Texas Colloidal Silver Effectiveness Study - This study conducted by the University of North Texas demonstrates the in-vitro effectiveness of a 15 PPM and a 30 PPM isolated colloidal silver product against a wide range of illness-causing bacteria.

Colloidal Silver Antibacterial Study - Microbiologists at Brigham Young University ( BYU ) - This time-kill study documents the effectiveness of silver as an antimicrobial substance. BYU Microbiologist Dr. Ron W. Leavitt concluded that a quality product may possibly serve as an antibiotic alternative.

Colloidal Silver and Natural Bentonite - This comparison study documents the improved effectiveness of natural bentonite when combined with isolated colloidal silver. This time kill study was accomplished using gram-positive Staph ( wild and MRSA ).

Colloidal Silver, Healing Clay, and Skin Cancer - A private research experiment on utilizing cansema, colloidal silver and healing clay with skin cancer. Warning: The images included in this section are very graphic.

Dr. Robert O Becker - A summary of Dr. Robert Becker's research conclusions on the biological effect of silver ions in electromedicine. Famed author of Body Electric and Cross Currents, Dr. Becker has published extensive information on the tissue healing properties of ionic silver.

Silver Iontophoresis - Explore the possibilities of silver ion injection via iontophoresis in this document based on the experience of Dr. Robert O. Becker. Electrically delivering silver ions into tissues may be advantageous in the treatment of skin conditions and infections.

Attributes of Silver Particles and Silver Solutions - Frances Key's chart on the properties of silver ions and particles. 

Antimicrobial effects

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  • Chen, X., Schluesener, HJ. (January 2008). Nanosilver: A nanoproduct in medical application. Toxicology Letters, 176(1): 1-12. Abstract
  • Chen, J., Han, C.M., Lin, X.W., Tang, Z.J. and Su, S.J. (2006). Effect of silver nanoparticle dressing on second degree burn wound, Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi, 44(1):50–52. Abstract
  • Cheng, D., Yang, J. and Zhao, Y. (2004). Antibacterial materials of silver nanoparticles application in medical appliances and appliances for daily use. Chin. Med. Equip. J., 4:26–32.
  • Cho, K.H., Park, J.E., Osaka, T., and Park, S-G. (November 2005). The study of antimicrobial activity and preservative effects of nanosilver ingredient. Electrochimica Acta, 51,5: 956-960. Abstract
  • Cohen, M.S., Stern, J.M., Vanni, et al. (2007). In vitro analysis of a nanocrystalline silver-coated surgical mesh. Surg. Infect., 8: 397–403. Abstract
  • Edward-Jones V. (2006). Antimicrobial and barrier effects of silver against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Wound Care, 15(7):285-290. Abstract
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  • Ip, M., Lui, S.L., Poon, V.K.M., Lung, I. and Burd, A. (2006) Antimicrobial activities of silver dressings: an in vitro comparison. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 55: 59-63. Abstract
  • Jiang, H., Manolache, S., Wong, A.C.L., Denes, F.S. (May 2004). Plasma-enhanced deposition of Silver nanoparticles onto polymer and metal surfaces for the generation of antimicrobial characteristics. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 93:3: 1411-1422. Abstract
  • Jose, R.M., Jose, L.E., Alejandra, C. (2005). The bactericidal effect of silver nanoparticles. Nanotechnology, 16: 2346–2353. Abstract
  • Jung, W. K., Koo, H. C., Kim, K. W. et al. (2008). Antibacterial Activity and Mechanism of Action of the Silver Ion in Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 74: 2171-2178. Abstract
  • Kim JS, Kuk E, Yu KN, et al. (2007). Antimicrobial effects of silver nanoparticles. Nanomedicine, 3(1):95-101. Abstract
  • Lansdown, A.B. (2006). Silver in health care: antimicrobial effects and safety in use. Current problems in dermatology, 33:17-34. Abstract
  • Lee, H.Y., Park, H.K., Lee, Y.M. and al. (2007). A practical procedure for producing silver nanocoated fabric and its antibacterial evaluation for biomedical applications. Chem. Commun. (Camb.), 28: 2959–2961. Abstract
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  • Melaiye, A., Youngs, W.J. (February 2005). Silver and its application as an antimicrobial agent. Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents, 15,2: 125-130(6). Abstract
  • Morones, J.R., Elechiguerra, J.L., Camacho, A. et al. (2005). The bactericidal effect of silver nanoparticles. Nanotechnology, 16: 2346-2353. Abstract
  • Pal, S., Tak, Y.K., and Song, J.M. (2007). Does antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticle depend on shape of nanoparticle? A study on Gram-negative E. coli. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. Abstract
  • Panacek A, Kvítek L, Prucek R, et al. (2007). Silver colloid nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, and their antibacterial activity. J Phys Chem B., 110(33):16248-53. Abstract
  • Perelshtein, I; Applerot, G; Perkas, N. et al. (June 2008). Sonochemical coating of silver nanoparticles on textile fabrics (nylon, polyester and cotton) and their antibacterial activity. Nanotechnology, 19(24). Abstract
  • Raffi M, Hussain F, Bhatti TM, et al. (March 2008). Antibacterial characterization of silver nanoparticles against E. coli ATCC-15224. Journal of Materials Science & Technology, 24(2): 192-196. Abstract
  • Shahverdi AR, Fakhimi A, Shahverdi HR, Minaian S. (June 2007). Synthesis and effect of silver nanoparticles on the antibacterial activity of different antibiotics against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Nanomedicine, 3(2):168-71. Abstract
  • Silver, S., Le T. Phung and Silver, G. (2006). Silver as biocides in burn and wound dressings and bacterial resistance to silver compounds. Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, 33: 627-634.
  • Vigneshwaran, N.; Kathe, A.A.; Varadarajan, P.V. et al. (2007). Functional finishing of cotton fabrics using silver nanoparticles. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 7: 1893–1897. Abstract
  • Yu, H., Xu, X., Chen, X. et. (2007). Preparation and antibacterial effects of PVA-PVP hydrogels containing silver nanoparticles. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 103(1):125-133. Abstract
  • Zeng, F. Hou, C., Wu, S. et al. (2007). Silver nanoparticles directly formed on natural macroporous matrix and their
    anti-microbial activities. Nanotechnology, 18, 055605.


  • Ahamed, M; Karns, M; Goodson, M. et al. (December 2008). DNA damage response to different surface chemistry of silver nanoparticles in mammalian cells. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 233(3):404-410.
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  • Arora, S; Jain, J; Rajwade, JM; Paknikar, KM. (May 2009). Interactions of silver nanoparticles with primary mouse fibroblasts and liver cells. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 236(3): 310-318. Abstract
  • AshaRani, PV; Mun, GLK; Hande, MP; Valiyaveettil, S. (February 2009). Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Silver Nanoparticles in Human Cells. ACS Nano, 3(2): 279-290. Abstract
  • Asharani, PV; Wu, YL; Gong, ZY; Valiyaveettil, S. (June 2008). Toxicity of silver nanoparticles in zebrafish models. Nanotechnology, 19(25). Abstract
  • Benn, TM, Westerhoff P. (June 2008). Nanoparticle Silver Released into Water from Commercially Available Sock Fabrics. Environmental Science & Technology, 42(11): 4133–4139. Abstract
  • Berry, W.J., Cantwell, M.G. et al. (1999). Predicting Toxicity Of Sediments Spiked With Silver. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 18(1): 40-48. Abstract
  • Bianchini A, Playle RC, Wood CM, et al. (July 2006). Short-term silver accumulation in tissues of three marine invertebrates: Shrimp Penaeus duorarum, sea hare Aplysia californica, and sea urchin Diadema antillarum. Aquatic Toxicology, 84(2): 182 -189.
  • Blaser, S.A., Scheringer, M., MacLeoda, M. and Hungerbühler, K. (2008). Estimation of cumulative aquatic exposure and risk due to silver: Contribution of nano-functionalized plastics and textiles. Science of The Total Environment, 390: 396–409. Abstract
  • Braydich-Stolle, L., Hussain, S., Schlager, J.J., and Hofmann, M.C. (2005). In vitro cytotoxicity of nanoparticles in mammalian germline stem cells. Toxicol. Sci., 88: 412–419. Abstract
  • Brown, C.L., Parchaso, F., Thompson, J.K., Luoma, S.N. (2003). Assessing Toxicant Effects in a Complex Estuary: A Case Study of Effects of Silver on Reproduction in the Bivalve, Potamocorbula amurensis, in San Francisco Bay. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 9(1): 95-119. Article
  • Burd, A., Kwok, C.H., Hung, S.C. et al. (2007). A comparative study of the cytotoxicity of silver-based dressings in monolayer cell, tissue explant, and animal models. Wound Repair Regen., 15(1):94-104. Abstract
  • Bury, N.R., McGeer, J.C, and Wood, C.M. (1999). Effects Of Altering Freshwater Chemistry On Physiological Responses Of Rainbow Trout To Silver Exposure. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 18(1): 50-55. Abstract
  • Bury, N.R., Galvez, F., and Wood, C.M. (1999).
    Effects Of Chloride, Calcium, And Dissolved Organic Carbon On Silver Toxicity: Comparison Between Rainbow Trout And Fathead Minnows. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 18(1): 56-62. Abstract
  • Call DJ, Polkinghorne CN, Markee TP, et al. (July 2006). Toxicity of silver in water and sediment to the freshwater amphipod Hyalella azteca. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 25(7): 1802 -1808. Abstract
  • Call, D.J., Polkinghorne, C.N. et al. (1999). Silver Toxicity To Chironomus Tentans In Two Freshwater Sediments. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 18(1): 30-39. Abstract
  • Carlson, C., Hussain, S. M., Schrand, A. M. et al. (October 2008). Unique Cellular Interaction of Silver Nanoparticles: Size-Dependent Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species. J. Phys. Chem. B, 112(43):13608–13619. Abstract
  • Cha, K; Hong, HW; Choi, YG. et al. (November 2008). Comparison of acute responses of mice livers to short-term exposure to nano-sized or micro-sized silver particles. Biotechnology Letters, 30(11):1893-1899. Abstract
  • Chappell, J.B. and Greviller, G.D. (1954). Effect of silver ions on mitochondrial adenosine triphosphatase. Nature, 174: 930–931. Abstract
  • Chen, X; Schluesener, HJ. (January 2008). Nanosilver: A nanoproduct in medical application. Toxicology Letters, 176(1): 1-12. Abstract
  • Chen, D., Xi, T. Bai, J. (September 2007). Biological effects induced by nanosilver particles: in vivo study. Biomed. Mater., 2 S126-S128. Abstract
  • Chi ZX, Liu RT, Zhao LZ et al. (April 2009). A new strategy to probe the genotoxicity of silver nanoparticles combined with cetylpyridine bromide. Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, 72(3): 577-581. Abstract
  • Choi, O., Hu, Z. (2008). Size Dependent and Reactive Oxygen Species Related Nanosilver Toxicity to Nitrifying Bacteria. Environ. Sci. Technol., 42 (12), 4583–4588. Abstract
  • Choi, O., Deng, K.K., Kim, N.J., et al. (2008). The inhibitory effects of silver nanoparticles, silver ions, and silver chloride colloids on microbial growth. Water Research, in Press, Corrected Proof. Abstract
  • Eckelman MJ,Graedel TE. (2007). Silver emissions and their environmental impacts: A multilevel assessment. Environ. Sci. Technol., 41 (17): 6283-6289. Abstract
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  • Galvez, F. and Wood, C.M. (1999). Physiological Effects Of Dietary Silver Sulfide Exposure In Rainbow Trout. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 18(1): 84-88. Abstract
  • Gan, X. Liu, T., Zhong, J. et al. (2004). Effect of Silver Nanoparticles on the Electron Transfer Reactivity and the Catalytic Activity of Myoglobin. Chembiochem, 5: 1686–1691. Abstract
  • Gao, J; Youn, S; Hovsepyan, A. et al. (May 2009). Dispersion and Toxicity of Selected Manufactured Nanomaterials in Natural River Water Samples: Effects of Water Chemical Composition. Environmental science & technology, 43(9): 3322-3328. Abstract
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  • Greulich C, Kittler S, Epple M, Muhr G, Köller M. (May 2009). Studies on the biocompatibility and the interaction of silver nanoparticles with human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Langenbecks Arch Surg., 394(3): 495-502. Abstract
  • Harris, A.T., Bali, B.R. (April 2008). On the formation and extent of uptake of silver nanoparticles by live plants. Journal of nanoparticle research, 10(4): 691-695. Abstract.
  • Haxton, E., Hylander, L.D., Melhus, A. (2006). Silver – a toxic threat to our health and environment. Fact Sheet
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  • Ji, J.H., Jung, J.H., Kim, S.S. et al. (January 2007). Twenty-Eight-Day Inhalation Toxicity Study of Silver Nanoparticles in Sprague-Dawley Rats. Inhalation Toxicology, 19(10): 857 - 871. Abstract
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  • Lansdown, A.B. (March 2007). Critical observations on the neurotoxicity of silver. Critical Reviews in Toxicology, 37(3): 237-250. Abstract
  • Lansdown, A.B. (2006). Silver in health care: antimicrobial effects and safety in use. Current problems in dermatology, 33:17-34. Abstract
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  • Ratte, H.T. (1999). Bioaccumulation And Toxicity Of Silver Compounds: A Review. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 18(1): 89-108. Abstract
  • Roh, JY; Sim, SJ; Yi, J. et al. (May 2009). Ecotoxicity of Silver Nanoparticles on the Soil Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans Using Functional Ecotoxicogenomics. Environmental science & technology, 43(10): 3933-3940. Abstract
  • Rosenman KD, Seixas N, Jacobs I. (1987). Potential nephrotoxic effects of exposure to silver. Br J Ind Med., 44(4):267-72. Abstract
  • Sato, S., Sueki, H., Nishijima, A. (1999). Two unusual cases of argyria: the application of an improved tissue processing method for X-ray microanalysis of selenium and sulphur in silver-laden granules. British Journal of Dermatology, 140(1): 158–163. Abstract
  • Sawosz E, Binek M, Grodzik M, et al. (2007). Influence of hydrocolloidal silver nanoparticles on gastrointestinal microflora and morphology of enterocytes of quails. Archives of animal nutrition, 61(6): 444–451.
  • Shin SH, Ye MK, Kim HS, Kang HS. (December 2007). The effects of nano-silver on the proliferation and cytokine expression by peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Int Immunopharmacol., 7(13):1813-8. Abstract
  • Soto, K., Garza, K.M. and Murr, L.E. (2007). Cytotoxic effects of aggregated nanomaterials. Acta Biomater., 3: 351–358. Abstract
  • Sung JH, Ji JH, Park JD et al. (2009). Subchronic inhalation toxicity of silver nanoparticles. Toxicol Sci., 108(2):452-461. Abstract
  • Sung, J.H., Ji, J.H., Yoon, J.U. et al. (April 2008). Lung Function Changes in Sprague-Dawley Rats After Prolonged Inhalation Exposure to Silver Nanoparticles. Inhalation Toxicology: 20(6), 567-574.
  • Suzuki, Y., Yoshimaru, T., Yamashita, K. et al. (2001). Exposure of RBL-2H3 mast cells to Ag(+) induces cell degranulation and mediator release. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 283: 707–714. Abstract
  • Takenaka, S., Karg,E., Roth, C. et al. (2001). Pulmonary and systemic distribution of inhaled ultrafine silver particles in rats. Environ. Health Perspect., 4(Suppl.): 547–551. Abstract
  • Takenaka, S., Karg,E., Moller, W. et al. (2000). A morphologic study on the fate of ultrafine silver particles: distribution pattern of phagocytized metallic silver in vitro and in vivo. Inhal. Toxicol., 12: 291–299. Abstract
  • Tang, JL; Xiong, L; Wang, S. et al. (November 2008). Influence of silver nanoparticles on neurons and blood-brain barrier via subcutaneous injection in rats. Bulletin Of Environmental Contamination And Toxicology, 255(2):502-504.
  • Trop, M., Novak, M. Rodl, S. et al. (March 2006). Silver-Coated Dressing Acticoat Caused Raised Liver Enzymes and Argyria-like Symptoms in Burn Patient. Journal of Trauma-Injury Infection & Critical Care, 60(3):648-652. Abstract
  • Van de Voorde, K., Nijsten, T. et al. (2005). Long-term use of silver containing nose-drops resulting in systemic argyria. Acta Clin. Belg., 60: 33–35. Abstract
  • Wang, D.Y., Yang, P. (April 2007). Silver Exposure Causes Transferable Defects of Phenotypes and Behaviors in Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Environmental Bioindicators, 2(2): 89-98. Abstract
  • Ward, T.J., Kramer J.R., Boeri, R.L., Gorsuch, J.W. (June 2006). Chronic toxicity of silver to the sea urchin (Arbacia punctulata). Environmental toxicology and chemistry, 25(6): 1568-73. Abstract
  • Ward, T.J., Boeri, R.L., Hogstrand, C., Kramer, J.R., Lussier, S.M., Stubblefield, W.A., Wyskiel, D.C., Gorsuch, J.W. (July 2006). Influence of salinity and organic carbon on the chronic toxicity of silver to mysids (Americamysis bahia) and silversides (Menidia beryllina). Environmental toxicology and chemistry, 25(7):1809-16. Abstract
  • Wijnhoven, S.W.P, Peijnenburg, WJPN., Herberts, C.A et al. (June 2009). Nano-silver - a review of available data and knowledge gaps in human and environmental risk assessment. Nanotoxicology, 3(2): 109 - 138. Abstract
  • Wood, C.M., Playle, R.C., and Hogstrand, C. (1999). Physiology And Modeling Of Mechanisms Of Silver Uptake And Toxicity In Fish. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 18(1): 71-83. Abstract
  • Yang, WJ; Shen, CC; Ji, QL et al. (June 2009). Food storage material silver nanoparticles interfere with DNA replication fidelity and bind with DNA. Nanotechnology, 20 (8): Art. No. 085102. Abstract
  • Yoshimaru, T., Suzuki, Y., Inoue,T. (2006). Silver activates mast cells through reactive oxygen species production and a thiol-sensitive store-independent Ca2+ influx, Free Radic. Biol. Med., 40: 1949–1959. Abstract
  • Zhang, Y. and Sun, J. (2007). A Study on the bio-safety for nano-silver as anti-bacterial materials. Chin. J. Med. Instrumen., 31: 35–38. Abstract

Human skin penetration of silver nanoparticles

  • Larese FF, D'Agostin F, Crosera M, et al. (January 2009). Human skin penetration of silver nanoparticles through intact and damaged skin. Toxicology, 255(1-2):33-7. Abstract

Microbial resistance

  • Bridges K, Kidson A, Lowbury EJ et al. (1979). Gentamicin- and silver-resistant Pseudomonas in a burns unit. Br Med J., 1:446–9. Abstract
  • Chopra I. (2007). The increasing use of silver-based products as antimicrobial agents: a useful development or a cause for concern? Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 59:587–590. Abstract
  • Davis, I. J., Richards, H., Mullany, P. (June 2005). Isolation of silver- and antibiotic-resistant Enterobacter cloacae from teeth. Oral Microbiology and Immunology. 20,3: 191. Abstract
  • Deshpande, LM, Chopade, BA. (1994). Plasmid mediated silver resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii. Biometals, 7:49–56. Abstract
  • Friends of the Earth. (March 2007). Nanosilver - a threat to soil, water and human health? Report.
  • Gupta, A., Matsui, K., Lo, J.F. & Silver, S. (1999). Molecular basis for resistance to silver cations in Salmonella. Nature Medicine. 5, 183-188. Article
  • Gupta, A., and Silver, S. (October 1998). Silver as a biocide. Will resistance become a problem? Nature Biotechnology, 16:888. Article
  • Gupta A, Maynes M, Silver S. (1998). Effects of halides on plasmid-mediated silver resistance in Escherichia coli. Appl Env Microbiol., 12:5042–5045. Article
  • Hendry AT, Stewart IO. (1979). Silver-resistant Enterobacteriaceae from hospital patients. Can J Microbiol., 25:915–21. Abstract
  • Katsikogianni, M. and Missirlis, Y.F. (2004). Concise review of mechanisms of bacterial adhesion to biomaterials and of techniques used in estimating bacteriamaterial interactions. European Cells and Materials. 8: 37-57. Article
  • Klaus, K., Joerger, R., Olsson, E., and Granqvist, C.G. (November 1999). Silver-based crystalline nanoparticles, microbially fabricated. PNAS, 96,24: 13611-13614. Article
  • Landsdown AB, Williams A. (January 2007). Bacterial resistance to silver in wound care and medical devices. J Wound Care., 16(1):15-9. Abstract
  • Ledrich, M.L., Stemmler, S., Laval-Gilly, P., Foucaud, L., and Falla, J. (December 2005). Precipitation of Silver-Thiosulfate Complex and Immobilization of Silver by Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34. BioMetals, 18,6: 643-650. Abstract
  • Li X-Z, Nikaido H, Williams KE. 1997. Silver-resistant mutants of Escherichia coli display active efflux of Ag+ and are deficient in porins. J Bacteriol. , 179(19):6127–6132. Abstract
  • Lok, CN; Ho, CM; Chen, R. et al. (June 2008). Proteomic identification of the Cus system as a major determinant of constitutive Escherichia coli silver resistance of chromosomal origin. Journal of proteome research, 7(6): 2351-2356. Abstract
  • McHugh, GL, Moellering, RC, Hopkins, CC et al. (1975). Salmonella typhimurium resistant to silver nitrate, chloramphenicol, and ampicillin. Lancet, 1: 235–40. Abstract
  • Margulis, L., and Case, E. (November-December 2006). The germs of life. Orion. Article
  • Percival SL, Woods E, Nutekpor M., et al. (March 2008). Prevalence of silver resistance in bacteria isolated from diabetic foot ulcers and efficacy of silver-containing wound dressings. Ostomy Wound Manage., 54(3):30-40. Abstract
  • Percival SL, Bowler PG, Russell D. (2005). Bacterial resistance to silver in wound care. J Hosp Infect., 60(1):1-7. Abstract
  • Silver, S., Le T. Phung and Silver, G. (2006). Silver as biocides in burn and wound dressings and bacterial resistance to silver compounds. Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, 33: 627-634. Article
  • Silver, S. (2003). Bacterial silver resistance: molecular biology and uses and misuses of silver compounds. FEMS Microbiology Reviews, 27:341-353. Abstract
  • Slawson, R. M., Lohmeier-Vogel, E. M., Lee, H. and Trevors, J. T. (1994). Silver resistance in Pseudomonas stutzeri. BioMetals, 7,1: 30-40. Abstract
  • Tenover FC. (2006). Mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria. Am J Infect Control, 34(S1):S3-S10. Abstract

Detection, Measure and Remediation of silver compounds in the environment

  • Benn, TM, Westerhoff P. (2008). Nanoparticle Silver Released into Water from Commercially Available Sock Fabrics. Environmental Science & Technology. Abstract
  • Blaser, S.A., Scheringer, M., MacLeoda, M. and Hungerbühler, K. (2008). Estimation of cumulative aquatic exposure and risk due to silver: Contribution of nano-functionalized plastics and textiles. Science of The Total Environment, 390: 396–409. Abstract
  • Choi, O; Cleuenger, TE; Deng, BL. et al. (April 2009). Role of sulfide and ligand strength in controlling nanosilver toxicity. Water Research,43(7): 1879-1886. Abstract
  • Essumang, DK; Nortsu, BK. (2008). Analysis of silver in the water column of the Pra and the Eture estuaries in Ghana. Chemistry in Ecology, 24(4): 297-303. Abstract
  • Howe, P.D. and Dr Dobson, S. (2002). Silver and silver compounds: environmental aspects. Concise International Chemical Assessment Document
  • Manzoori JL, Abdolmohammad-Zadeh H, Amjadi M.. (2007). Ultra-trace determination of silver in water samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry after preconcentration with a ligand-less cloud point extraction methodology. J Hazard Mater., 1;144(1-2): 458-63. Abstract
  • Metian, M; Warnau, M. (November 2008). The tropical brown alga Lobophora variegata (Lamouroux) Womersley: A prospective bioindicator for Ag contamination in tropical coastal waters. Bulletin Of Environmental Contamination And Toxicology, 81(5):455-458. Abstract
  • Mueller, N.C, and Nowack, B. (2008). Exposure Modeling of Engineered Nanoparticles in the Environment. Environ. Sci. Technol., 42(12):4447–4453. Abstract
  • Ohta K, Saruma K, Kaneco S, et al. (2002). Preconcentration of trace silver with yeast for river water analysis. Ann Chim., 92(5-6): 587-94. Abstract
  • Valverde, F; Costas, M; Pena, F. et al. (November 2008). Determination of total silver and silver species in coastal seawater by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry after batch sorption experiments with Chelex-100 resin. Chemical Speciation and Bioavailability, 20(4):217-226. Abstract

Occupational, health and safety issues related to silver particles and compounds

  • Armitage, S.A., White, M.A., H. Kerr Wilson, H.K. (1996). The determination of silver in whole blood and its application to biological monitoring of occupationally exposed groups. Am. occup. Hyg., 40(3): 331-338.
  • Barrie, H.J., and Harding, H.E. (1947). Argyro-siderosis of the lungs in silver finishers. Brit. J. industr. Med., 4, 225. Article
  • Brooks, S.M. (1981). Ultrastructural localization and chemical binding of silver ions in human organotypic skin cultures. Clin Chest Med., 2(2): 235-54. Abstract
  • Cho, EA; Lee, WS; Kim, KM; Kim, SY. (November 2008). Occupational generalized argyria after exposure to aerosolized silver. Journal of Dermatology, 35(11):759-760.
  • DiVincenzo, G. D., Giordano, C. J. and Schriever, L. S. (1985). Biologic monitoring of workers exposed to silver. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 56(3): 207-215. Abstract
  • Drake, P.L. and Hazelwood, K.J. (2005). Exposure-Related Health Effects of Silver and Silver Compounds: A Review. Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 49(7):575-585. Abstract
  • Hussain, SM; Schlager, JJ. (April 2009). Safety Evaluation of Silver Nanoparticles: Inhalation Model for Chronic Exposure. Toxicological Sciences, 108(2): 223-224. Abstract
  • Kayarkar, R., Parker, AJ., Goepel, JR. (2003). The Sheffield nose - An occupational disease? Rhinology, 41(2):125-6. Abstract
  • Kim, Y; Suh, HS; Cha, HJ. et al. (March 2009). A Case of Generalized Argyria After Ingestion of Colloidal Silver Solution. American Journal Of Industrial Medicine, 52(3): 246-250. Abstract
  • Moss, A.P., Sugar, A., Hargett, N.A. et al. (1979). The ocular manifestations and functional effects of occupational argyrosis. Archives of Ophtalmology, 97(5). Abstract
  • Pala, G; Fronterre, A; Scafa, F. et al. (November 2008). Ocular Argyrosis in a Silver Craftsman. Journal of Occupational Health , 50(6):521-524. Abstract
  • Pifer JW, Friedlander BR, Kintz RT, Stockdale DK. (1989). Absence of toxic effects in silver reclamation workers. Scand J Work Environ Health., 15(3):210-21. Abstract
  • Rosenman KD, Seixas N, Jacobs I. (1987). Potential nephrotoxic effects of exposure to silver. Br J Ind Med., 44(4):267-72. Abstract
  • Rosenman KD, Moss, A., Kon, S. (1979). Argyria - clinical implications of exposure to silver-nitrate and silver-oxide. Journal Of Occupational And Environmental Medicine, 21(6): 430-435. Abstract
  • Tsai, SJ., Ada, E., Isaacs, JA., and Ellenbecker, MJ. (January 2009). Airborne nanoparticle exposures associated with the manual handling of nanoalumina and nanosilver in fume hoods. Journal of Nanoparticle Research, 11(1): 223-224. Abstract
  • Weir, F.W. (1979). Health-hazard from occupational exposure to metallic copper and silver dust. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, 40(3): 245-247. Abstract
  • Williams, N. and Gardner, I. (1995). Absence of symptoms in silver refiners with raised blood silver levels. Occup. Med., 45(4): 205-8. Abstract


  • Baker C, Pradhan A, Pakstis L, et al. (2005). Synthesis and antibacterial properties of silver nanoparticles. J Nanosci Nanotechnol., 5(2):244-9. Abstract
  • Evanoff, D.D. and Chumanov, G. (2005). Synthesis and optical properties of silver nanoparticles and arrays. Chemphyschem, 6: 221–1231. Abstract
  • Liu, H.G., Xiao F., Wang, C.W., et al. (February 2008). One-step synthesis of silver nanoparticles at the air-water interface using different methods. Nanotechnology, 19(5). Abstract

PresPress Articles

Source:  Last updated May 2009 - Mathilde Colin, NANO CitizenEngagementOrganization   NCEO original source

Gutierrez David, "Vibrational Medicine: Scientists Kill Viruses by Blasting them with Resonant Frequencies," Natural, August 14, 2008.    Vibrational medicine

Wiley Sophie Ladden,  "Silver Nanoparticles Deadly to Bacteria,", March 10, 2008. nanoparticles kill bacteria

Niaazi Sarafaraz K, Seyd Tajammul Hussain and Mohammed Mazhar, "Patent application title: Novel method of manufacture of silver oxide nano particles," Quaid-e-Azam University, Originating in Deerfield, Il., USA,   IPC8 Class: AC01G500FI, USPC Class: 423604, Read more:  Patent Mftg nanosilver particles

Read more: More on manufacturing process

Akhavan Omid and Elham Ghaderi, "Enhancement of antibacterial properties of Ag nanorods by electric field," SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY OF ADVANCED MATERIALS, January 19, 2009. Original article
Apsley John©, DC, Kent Holtorf, MD, Eric Gordon, MD, Wayne Anderson, ND, and Rashid Buttar, DO. "Nanotechnology’s Latest Oncolytic Agent: Silver, Cancer & Infection Associations Part III, " Immunological Research Foundation, Silver treatment for cancer
Conclusions: "Four out of the 30 patients (13%) experienced JHEs (die-off effects) from treatment. These side reactions were minimal, and were confined to self-resolving, self-limiting and uneventful hepatomegaly and mild fever. At 30 days post-treatment, silver-oxide-hydrosol appeared to have cured the breast cancers of the 30 test subjects."
Saint Sanjay, MD, MPH,  Joann G Elmore, MD, MPH Sean D Sullivan, PhD Scott S Emerson, MD, PhD Thomas D Koepsell, MD, MPH, " The efficacy of silver alloy-coated urinary catheters in preventing urinary tract infection: a meta-analysis, The American Journal of Medicine, September 1998 Issue 3, Pages 236-241. Saint article
"Conclusions: This meta-analysis clarifies discrepant results among trials of silver-coated urinary catheters by revealing that silver alloy catheters are significantly more effective in preventing urinary tract infections than are silver oxide catheters. Though silver alloy urinary catheters cost about $6 more than standard urinary catheters, they may be worth the extra cost since catheter-related infection is a common cause of nosocomial infection and bacteremia."
  1. Lansdown AB (2006). "Silver in health care: antimicrobial effects and safety in use". Current Problems in Dermatology 33: 17–34. doi:10.1159/000093928. PMID 16766878
  2. O. Akhavan and E. Ghaderi (2009). " Enhancement of antibacterial properties of Ag nanorods by electric field" (free download pdf). Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 10: 015003.doi 10.1088/1468-6996/10/1/015003. EJ/article
  3. Fung / Bowen 1996: 121.
  4. Brandt D, Park B, Hoang M, Jacobe HT (August 2005). "Argyria secondary to ingestion of homemade silver solution". J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 53 (2 Suppl 1): S105–7. doi: >10.1016/j.jaad.2004.09.026 PMID 16021155.
  5. Okan D, Woo K, Sibbald RG (June 2007). "So what if you are blue? Oral colloidal silver and argyria are out: safe dressings are in". Adv Skin Wound Care 20 (6): 326–30. doi 17538258. "Colloidal silver suspensions are solutions of submicroscopic metallic silver particles suspended in a colloid base. These products deliver predominantly inactive metallic silver, not the antimicrobial ionized form.".
  6. Stepien KM, Morris R, Brown S, Taylor A, Morgan L (September 2009). "Unintentional silver intoxication following self-medication: an unusual case of corticobasal degeneration". Ann. Clin. Biochem. PMID.
  7. Mirsattari SM, Hammond RR, Sharpe MD, Leung FY, Young GB Neurology(8): 1408–10. April 2004. "Myoclonic status epilepticus following repeated oral ingestion of colloidal silver".
  8. Fung and Bowen 1996: 120. ". National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. December 2006. Colloidal Silver Products
  9. gov/health/silver/
  10. Tien DC, Tseng KH, Liao CY, Tsung TT (October 2008). "Colloidal silver fabrication using the spark discharge system and its antimicrobial effect on Staphylococcus aureus". Med Eng Phys 30 (8): 948–52. 10.1016/j.medengphy.2007.10.007.
  11. van Hasselt P, Gashe BA, Ahmad "Colloidal silver as an antimicrobial agent: fact or fiction?". J Wound Care, J (April 2004). 13, (4): 154–5. aanti microbial agent
  12. Useful known and unknown views of the father of modern medicine, Hippocrates and his teacher Democritus., U.S. National Library of Medicine Salt Lake Metals: Antibacterial effects of silver
  13. Searle, A.B. (1920). "Chapter VIII: Germicides and Disinfectants". The Use of Colloids in Health and Disease. Gerstein - University of Toronto : Toronto Collection: London Constable & Co.. colloids in health& disease
  14. Chopra, Ian, Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 59, 587, February 16, 2007. "The increasing use of silver-based products as antimicrobial agents: a useful development or a cause for concern?". .
  15. Spacecraft Water Exposure Guidelines for Selected Contaminants: Volume 1 U.S. National Academy of Sciences. 2004. p. 324.
  16. Solsona, Felipe; Juan Pablo, "Water Disinfection," Mendez World Health Organization(2003). "Water Disinfection (PDF)" .
  17. Richmond, Caroline (2008-10-16). "Ron Rivera: Potter who developed a water filter that saved lives in the third world". The Guardian guardian.2008/oct/16
  18. Corbett Sara, New York Times , December 24, 2008. "Solution in a Pot".
  19. Committee on Creation of Science-based Industries in Developing Countries, Development, Security, and Cooperation, Policy and Global Affairs, National Research Council of the National Academies, Nigerian Academy of Science. (2007). Mobilizing Science-Based Enterprises for Energy, Water, and Medicines in Nigeria. Washington, D.C: National Academies Press. pp. 39. ISBN
  20. About Herbs: Colloidal Silver". Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. 2008-07-25 Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
  22. the
  23. Atiyeh BS, Costagliola M, Hayek SN, Dibo SA (2007). "Effect of silver on burn wound infection control and healing: review of the literature". Burns 33 (2): 139–48. burn wound infection control
  24. Hermans MH, "Silver-containing dressings and the need for evidence". The American Journal of Nursing 2006 106 (12): 60–8; quiz 68–9. burn dressings.
  25. abstract
  26.   medscape
  27. silver-dressings-wound-management-pediatric-burns
  28. pdf
  29. Lo SF, Hayter M, Chang CJ, Hu WY, Lee LL, "A systematic review of silver-releasing dressings in the management of infected chronic wounds". Journal of clinical nursing, (2008) 17 (15): 1973–85. silver dressings 18705778
  30.   Silver-coated Endotracheal Tube Dramatically Reduces Resistant Infections ScienceDaily (May 21, 2008) Silver-coated Endotracheal Tube Dramatically Reduces Resistant Infections
  31. Silver-Coated Endotracheal Tube Reduces Risk for Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia, by News Author: Laurie Barclay, MD and CME Author: Penny Murata, MD - August 20 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.
  32.  /Clinic safety
  33.  Sanjay Saint, MD, MPH; Joann G. Elmore, MD, MPH; Sean D. Sullivan, PhD; Scott S. Emerson, MD, PhD; Thomas D Koepsell, MD, MPH American Journal of Medicine September 1998, 105 (3): 236–241. "The efficacy of silver alloy-coated urinary catheters in preventing urinary tract infection: a meta-analysis".
  34.   science Article
  35.  elsevier article
  36. "AGC Flat Glass Europe launches world’s first antibacterial glass".
  37.  http://jama.ama-abstract/300/7/805
  38.  "FDA Clears Silver-Coated Breathing Tube For Marketing 2007-11-08". NEWS/2007
  39. Roe, A. Legge. "COLLOSOL ARGENTUM AND ITS OPHTHALMIC USES.". British Medical Journal 1915;1;104 .1. 2820.104): 104
  40. Macleod, C.E.Alex, Lancet February 03, 191 2179 (4614): 322–323. "ELECTRIC METALLIC COLLOIDS AND THEIR THERAPEUTICAL APPLICATIONS.".
  41. Searle, A.B. (1920). "Chapter IX: Colloidal Remedies and Their Uses". The Use of Colloids in Health and Disease. Gerstein - University of Toronto : Toronto Collection: London Constable & Co.
  42.  Cantlie, James British Medical Journal (BMJ) November 15, 1913 ;2;1282-1302): 1296–1297 . "SOME RECENT OBSERVATIONS ON SPRUE."
  43. Fung / Bowen 1996: 120 and 121; They cite "Health Fraud Bulletin #19" as well as promotional materials from manufacturers of products and refer to written communication from February 1995.
  44.  Newman M, Kolecki P "Argyria in the ED". Am J Emerg Med, October 2001. 19 (6): 525–6. Argyria in the ED
  45.  "Over-the-counter drug products containing colloidal silver ingredients or silver salts. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), Public Health Service (PHS), Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Final rule". Fed RegistAugust 1999 64 (158): 44653–8. . Fed register
  46. Case reports of argyria related to colloidal silver products include:
    • Kalouche H, Watson A, Routley D . "Blue lunulae: argyria and hypercopprecaemia". Australas. J. Dermatol, August 2007 48 (3): 182–4. argyria
    • Baker CD, Federico MJ, Accurso FJ . "Case report: skin discoloration following administration of colloidal silver in cystic fibrosis". Curr. Opin. Pediatr. December 2007 19 (6): 733–5. cystic fibrosis
    • Chang AL, Khosravi V, Egbert B "A case of argyria after colloidal silver ingestion". J. Cutan. Pathol. December 2006. 33 (12): 809–11. case of argyria
    • McKenna JK, Hull CM, Zone JJ. July 2003, Int. J. Dermatol. 42 (7): 549.. " Argyria associated with colloidal silver supplementation".
    • Blue Man's Skin 'Lightening'
  47. U.S. Food and Drug AdministrationColloidal Silver Not Approved
  48.  U.S. Food and Drug AdministrationFDA Warning Letter
  49.  Australian Regulation Therapeutic Goods Administratio"Regulation of colloidal silver and related products
Books & articles:  
  Searle Alfred B., The use of colloids in health and disease, Constable and Company, Ltd, London, England., 1920.  Textbook of 1920

ABL summary:
  • on April 30 2009, American Biotech Labs held an informational webinar about its uniquely patented SilverSol Technology®. For your convenience, we have prepared this to summarize the information that was presented by Dr. Gordon Pedersen.
  •  Approved in US Patent #7135195
  •  Destroys Bacteria, Viruses, and Fungi
  •  Does not harm good bacteria
  •  Can be taken every day for Prevention
  •  Can be used in every orifice of the body
  •  Helps reduce inflammation
  •  Permanently Suspended
  •  Resonates between 890-910 Terahertz (Frequency similar to UV light)
  •  Helps stimulate Stem Cells
  •  Used on body both internally and externally
  •  Helps regenerate wounds on the skin
American BioTech Labs has animal model viral studies on H5N1 as reported in a peer reviewed article published by JSHO which states:
“Especially of interest was the observation that 60% of the infected mice treated with this compound survived compared to the 30% in the placebo-treated controls”

Viral Studies:
In test tube results the American Biotech Labs silver product was able to kill or neutralize a billion bacteriophage viruses in 2.5 hours. In test tube tests against an Avian Influenza A H3-N2 and the Beijing Influenza A H1-N1, the American Biotech Labs 10 ppm product (ASAP) was able to kill or neutralize 96-98% of the virus in two hours, with no measurable virus surviving in 12 hours. Against Avian Influenza A H5-N1 Vietnam Hybrid, the 10 ppm product reduced the viral levels below detectable levels in six hours.

Keith Moeller, a Managing Director states, “We realize that these study findings are just a preliminary step in showing the effectivity of the product as a daily supplement to improve health. But, given the fact that there is no other product that has been proven both safe for daily usage, and even moderately effective against H5-N1 Bird Flu, we think the study is very important.”
  •  Approved in US Patent #7135195
  •  Destroys Bacteria, Viruses, and Fungi
  •  Does not harm good bacteria
  •  Can be taken every day for Prevention
  •  Can be used in every orifice of the body
  •  Helps reduce inflammation
SilverSol Technology®   “…the Silver killed the residual bacteria that the antibiotic couldn’t.”   - Current Science, 2006
“In short, we currently do not have anything with such a wide spectrum of efficacy… in our inventory.”

Paul K. Carlton, Jr., M.D., FACS   SilverSol® can be taken daily as a prophylactic supplement