A. Pre-conventional Level:
    Stage 2: Individual Instrumental Purpose features:
  • 1. You scratch my back & I'll scratch your back
    2. I do what is best for me
    3. Right is what is fair
    4. Selfish "me is what counts"

Example:" If you speed on the freeway you will get a ticket!"

Age Level: about 9 - 12

Justice is: "Do unto others as they do unto you." Individual does what is necessary, makes concessions only as necessary to satisfy his own needs. Right action consists of what instrumentally satisfies one's own needs. Vengeance is considered a moral duty. People are valued in terms of their utility.