By Walter Sorochan Emeritus Professor: San Diego State University
Posted February 1, 2015; Disclaimer The information provided below is intended for educational purposes only. It is not meant to either directly or indirectly give medical advice nor prescribe treatment, or as a substitute for consulting licensed medical health care professionals. You should always work with a qualified health professional.
This researcher-author became intrigued about the healing affects of water when he stumbled on Fareydoon Batmanghelidj's articles on the internet. The claims made by this doctor were too good to be true. The author investigated the documentation supporting the doctor's claims. He was shocked to discover that a great amount of information about water was personal opinion and was not backed up by research or documentation.
This research-author read two of the doctor's books and numerous articles about the importance of drinking ample amounts of water. In reading the many, many other articles about the affects water can have on our health, he was looking for scientific medical information to back up Dr. Batmanghelidj's claims about water. The more he reviewed, the more complicated the water issue became.
The shocker is that most persons are probably dehydrated and don't know it. Dehydration is often silent and the initial symptoms not visible; like an addiction, you may have it but not able to recognize being in trouble!
Four big ideas about water and humans:
Well, you knew most of this but you probably don't know all you need to know. For example, that the body can gradually lapse into dehydration and you may not be aware of it.
As we get older, we tend to lose our ability to sense and recognize that we need to immediately drink more water. And that one needs to ingest salt to help water do its job .... this information is the opposite of being told that salt is bad for you! Hopefully this article will keep it simple and clarify information about the "essentials of water and good health!"Keep in mind that this article focuses on the consequences of dehydration or lack of water and not all the other properties of water.
Before plunging into Dr. Batmanghelidj's theory about water cure, it will be helpful to become aware of basic human physiology and how the human body works.
Basics of human body and water: The human body is a water machine, designed to run primarily on water, amino acids and minerals. From a common sense point of view, if we are made up of plain water, then naturally the quality of the water we consume will have a very dramatic impact on our overall state of health. Every healing and life giving process that happens in our body happens through water!
The human body is 99% water. Water facilitates all metabolic processes. Every function in the body is monitored by the brain and connected to the efficient flow of water. The brain is 2 % of the total body weight but receives about 20% of blood circulation. The brain, made up of 85% water, has first priority for water. When the brain is short of water or dehydrated, water that would normally flow to other parts of the body, like extremities, is shut off. One can feel faint or dizzy when this happens. The heart has the second priority for being hydrated, thereafter the liver and kidneys. Indeed, every cell in the body is part of the body's monitoring for water on a priority basis. The body is constantly reacting to the amount of water in the cells. When the body gets dehydrated, then the brain robs Peter to pay Paul [ so to speak ]; water is redistributed on a priority basis. This is not common knowledge!
Another essential information to keep in mind is that the body heals all diseases at same time. The body heals everything all at once! This may explain why some healing takes takes longer than another. [ This is a new medical information. ] But .... one needs to drink a lot of water at the proper time, with a pinch of sea salt, for water to act as a healer. Batmanghelidj Water cures
Functions of Water in the Body:
The body has two kinds of water: The first is water that is already in use, is already committed and cannot be used for new functions. Think of this water as being married to the cells of the body and committed to carrying out existing functions of the body. Adams: Batmanghelidj interview water Batmanghelidj Water cures
The second type of water is free or new water that is needed to perform new functions and replenish all body cells. Organ cells, such as lungs, digestive system and skin, lose water by expiration, defecation, urination, and sweating. Cells also need new water to create enzymes, hormones and other body substances like energy producing ATP in cells. Water has energy and transmits it to body cells. Water is more than just a liquid!
Foods-beverages causing dehydration: New water intake is different from other beverages such as coffee, soft drinks and fruit drinks. Coffee and soft drinks contain caffeine and sugar or corn syrup and these beverages act as diuretics and cause dehydration. Rich proteins such as meats, fats and many drugs also cause dehydration.
The signs and symptoms of dehydration may range from minor to severe and include:
Classic example of dehydration is a drinking alcohol hangover. Alcohol is a diuretic and water has to be replenished by sapping it from muscles and other organs – like your brain. This causes a headache!
Water Cure Theory: Batmanghelidj claims that shortage of water in different areas of the body will cause varying symptoms, signals and complications that we sense or feel; such as pain, inflammation, thirst, itching, headache, shortness of breath, heartburn and fatigue. His main contention is that lacking water for a long time [chronic dehydration] causes the cells to react [compensation]; thereby causing chronic disorders and diseases like asthma, arthritis, constipation, high blood pressure, cancer, stress, depression, excess weight, obesity, multiple sclerosis, muscular dystrophy and other problems.
The main theory is that many if not most of these health problems can be treated with the right amount of water at the proper time. His prime example is having successfully treated over 3,000 people in Iran suffering from peptic ulcer disease with only water. This water therapy was published as the main editorial of the Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology in June 1983, and also reported in the SCIENCE WATCH (Science Times) of the New York Times, June 21, 1983. Water completely reverses many illness-disease conditions in a matter of days or months. No drugs ... just plain water! In virtually every health problem dehydration is perceived as a factor .... not necessarily the cause but certainly a major factor. Batmanghelidj water treats ulcer 1983 Batmanghelidj Water cures
There are now many medical doctors and scientists that support the water cure theory of Batmanghelidj. For example Komsomolets: Water cures cancer 2006 Rogers: water good health Lam: Dehydration 2009 Peregrine: water-salt cure 2008
So how does water work to heal and cure diseases?
Water in the human body generates electricity: Human body cells have a resonant wave frequency of about 1000 KHz. The body is an electrical machine washed in water. It is water that dissolves the minerals sodium, calcium, chloride, magnesium and potassium and allows these to function as electric energy or electrolytes in the human body. Electrolytes in the cells of the nervous system communicate with one another by means of electric signals that rapidly travel along the nerve system. The electricity generated by the brain and all cells makes all body functions possible and indeed life itself. Welsh: How brain works 2013
"Water and salt are absolutely essential for the generation of neuro-electric energy, and particularly for neurotransmission mechanisms." Batmanghelidj Water cures The short video below illustrates this magic in water:
Histamine & immune suppression: Batmanghelidj discovered that "histamine is a vital chemical messenger [neurotransmitter] in the brain and body. Histamine regulates body water intake. It is in charge of water intake and drought management in the body. It is less active when the body is fully hydrated, and becomes increasingly active when the body becomes dehydrated. In short, histamine produces pain when an area in the body is suffering from drought!" At the same time, histamine suppresses the immune system in the digestive system in an effort to make sure the water drought does not starve the brain of water. While one function of histamine is to manage-regulate drought in the body, the second function is to regulate the immune system. The more dehydration, the more suppression of the immune system and exacerbation of numerous illnesses and disorders. Batmanghelidj Water cures Cheves: Histamine intolerance 2012
According to Batmanghelidj, water completely reverses conditions such as: asthma, allergies, angina, hypertension, migraine headaches, arthritis pain, back pain, colitis pain, chronic constipation, heartburn, hiatal hernia, depression, chronic fatigue syndrome, eye problems, high cholesterol, morning sickness and overweight problems. Even heart problems needing bypass surgery. All these disease conditions responded simply and permanently to water. Drink any water you feel comfortable to drink. Clean tap water is as good as any. Batmanghelidj Water cures
Suppressed Immune system: When the brain signals pain in a certain part of the body, it automatically signals the digestive system and disrupts the immune system [and lymphatic system]. The immune system immediately becomes suppressed as a result of excessive activity of histamine. Now the white cell count is low and the body becomes increasingly susceptible to infections and disorders.
Examples of Batmanghelidj's claims that many symptoms are caused by dehydration:
PAIN: Pain is probably the earliest symptom of dehydration. Different kinds of pain [ headache, back, rheumatoid joint, angina [heart], colitis [lower stomach]] are all signs of dehydration in the body. And the mechanism is very simple; when there isn't enough water to be evenly distributed and certain parts of the body are working but not receiving enough water to deal with its toxic waste and metabolism, toxic waste builds up that area. The nerve endings in that area register the chemical environmental change with the brain. And the brain translates this information for the conscious mind in the form of pain. Batmanghelidj Water cures Batmanghelidj: Arthritis & back pain 1995
Rheumatoid Arthritis: Water helps relieve pain in joints. Batmanghelidj: Arthritis & back pain 1995 Ishibashi: water reduces disease 2012
Headache: Water relieves headache. Headache is a reaction from shutting down the water delivery system to your brain cells. href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16128874">Spigt: Water relieves headache 2005 Spigt: water reviews headache Randomized 2012
Heartburn [Gert or reflux] is a sign of dehydration in the human body and that one needs to drink water.
Inability to sleep: Cant Sleep: Try Water Cures
Blood Pressure: Mineral water reduces risk of high blood pressure. Rylander: mineral water reduces HBP 2004 Water lowers blood pressure: "How does not drinking enough water raise your blood pressure? Water intake affects blood pressure in two ways. First, when you don’t drink enough water your body attempts to secure its fluid supply by retaining sodium. Sodium is your body’s “water-insurance mechanism.” At the same time, dehydration forces your body to gradually and systematically close down some of its capillary beds. When some capillary beds shut down, it puts more pressure in your capillaries and arteries, thereby elevating your blood pressure. So, one of the best ways to lower your blood pressure naturally is by staying well-hydrated." Sinatra: Water lowers BP 2014 McMillan: Water lowers BP 2010 Water drinking increases blood pressure moderately in older but not younger control subjects Jordan: Water reflexes 2000
Hypertension is another one of these problems. When there isn't enough water in the body, or the body becomes dehydrated, 66% of the water loss is from the interior of the cells. 26% of water loss is from the environment around the cells, and only 8% is lost from the vascular system. But the vascular system is an elastic system ---- it tightens up with dehydration and takes up the slack; consequently you don't see the problem that is going on inside the cells of your body when blood is being tested in so many conditions. If people drank water on a regular basis and took enough salt and minerals to expand the capillary beds, hypertension would disappear completely. [ Ingesting salt is contrary to the traditional medical viewpoint ]
Asthma: We lose about a quart of water through breathing every day. This normal loss of water from the lungs is regulated by histamine. The constriction produced by histamine results in less water evaporating during breathing ---- a simple natural process to preserve body water [ a defense mechanism ]. It is actually the surface tension in the alveoli of the lungs that produces contraction of these tiny membranes, and air is pushed out. And in the process, water will leave with the air that is leaving. So you lose about a quart of water in breathing each day. We need to replenish water loss. When we don't replenish the water, the body tightens up the bronchial tubes and plugs up the breathing holes. Doctors have labeled this reduced air flow in the lungs, due to dehydration, as asthma. Adams: Batmanghelidj interview water [ This information is contrary to the traditional medical viewpoint ]
Aggravating the condition of asthma in many children is drinking sodas instead of water. Sodas don't function in the same way as water and cause dehydration which, in turn, cause asthma in kids. According to Batmanghelidj, "giving these children water will have their asthma disappear very quickly, in a matter of a few hours; the breathing completely becomes normal. The kids do NOT need their inhalers." Batmanghelidj Water cures
Diabetes: Diabetes is a breakdown in how blood sugar is used in the body. Water lowers the risk of diabetes. The chemistry of diabetes, as detailed by Batmanghelidj, is complex. But the simplified version of insulin-independent diabetes is that a dehydration of the body triggers the brain, that in turn, activates the neurotransmitters to inhibit insulin to the rest of body except the brain, thereby rerouting glucose [blood sugar] delivery to the rest of the body and sending glucose to the brain. The brain itself is not dependent on insulin for its functions while body cells are totally dependent on insulin for glucose.
Dehydration further complicates diabetes by depleting the essential amino acid tryptophan. Lack of water causes tryptophan to brake down in the liver. Tryptophan also regulates kidney excretion of salt. Lower levels of tryptophan lower normal salt reserves. This disrupts the balance of body functions. On the other hand, normal levels of tryptophan in the brain maintain a well-regulated balance of all body functions and arrests tryptophan breakdown in the liver [body balance or homeostasis]. O'Connor: water lowers diabetes 2012 Roussel: Low water intake & hyperglycemia 2011
Alzheimer’s disease: happens when the brain cells shrink and then lose their functions, from prolonged dehydration. Imagine a plum turning into a prune – that is what the brain does without sufficient water.
Constipation: It is in the large intestine where water is absorbed and the remaining waste material is stored as feces. The bowel movement is soft and easy to pass when one drinks ample water and eats adequate fiber; but defecation can be difficult when one is dehydrated.
Weight Gain & Obesity: Researchers have added to Batmanghelidj's understanding that people gain weight and become obese when not drinking enough water. Daniels: water & wt loss 2010 Dennis: Beveragess & wt loss 2009 Glasziou: water for weight loss 2013 Dubnov-Raz: water helps obese children 2011 Glasziou: water for weight loss 2013 Malik: soft drinks & weight gain 2006 Muckelbauer: Review water intake & weight 2013 Popin: Water consumption patterns 2005 Stookey: water & wt loss 2008
The brain has an appestat center that needs neuro-electrical energy to function and gets it from either sugar or water. Since the brain activates both hunger and thirst simultaneously, the urge for energy is to feel good by eating food and sugar. Only about 20 percent of the food reaches the brain and the rest is used in muscle activity or stored in the body as fat. Dehydration causes the brain to use sugar instead of water. On the other hand, drinking water, according to Batmanghelidj, by those persons who drink water before eating food, separates the two sensations and activates the brain to use water for energy. With water as a source of energy, the person eats less and the storage does not happen. Excess water is passed out in the form of urine. Eating large meals and dehydration add to the storage of food and weight gain. Batmanghelidj Water cures
Complicating the eating of excessive meals and sugar in drinks and pastry is corn syrup. Both sweeteners, sugar and corn syrup, are addicting, satisfy the craving for sweetness, feeling good and gradually add to body weight. Batmanghelidj Water cures
This is a simplistic way to understand how hunger can put weight on a body and cause obesity overtime. The most important key to losing excess body weight is drinking ample water with a pinch of salt and complemented by exercise and a balanced diet.
Research was presented by Brenda Davy at the annual meeting of the American Chemical Society, in Boston, in 2010, that drinking two 8-ounce glasses of water before breakfast, lunch, and dinner while also cutting back on food portions may help you lose weight and keep it off for at least a year. Davy: water weight loss 2010
Brenda Davy's study included 48 adults between age 55 and 75 who were divided into two groups. One group drank two cups of water before meals and the other didn't. All participants ate a low-calorie diet throughout the study. After 12 weeks, water drinkers lost about 15.5 pounds, compared to non-water-drinking dieters, who lost only 11 pounds. Davy told WebMD that the study participants drank about 1.5 cups of water per day prior to joining in the study. Not only were those who drank water before meals more successful after 12 weeks, but they also kept "the weight off for a full year after the weight loss study." Even better, most water drinkers, followed for an additional 12 months, not only kept weight off but "even lost another 1 to 2 pounds," she told WebMD. The message, she says, is clear: "People should drink more water and less sugary, high-calorie drinks." Davy: water weight loss 2010
Additional research by Glasziou supports Davy's research: "Drinking 500 mL (2 cups) of water 30 minutes before each meal can be used to assist in weight loss. When combined with a hypocaloric diet, pre-meal water consumption leads to greater weight loss than a hypocaloric diet alone. The intervention can lead to: an approximately 2 kg greater weight loss over 12 weeks, a 44% greater rate of weight loss." Glasziou: water for weight loss 2013
Note: Obesity increases the likelihood of diabetes, hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke, certain cancers, obstructive sleep apnea and osteoarthritis. It also negatively affects reproductive performance. WHO: Salt & health 2014
Appetite Suppression: Drinking water prior to each meal may help suppress appetite. A promising pproach to reducing appetite which does not involve taking any drugs, and is very safe, is to drink a moderate amount of water before a meal. Though this had been a folk remedy for many years, and is recommended by some dieticians and stipulated in some scientific studies, it was only recently that the approach was subjected to a scientific randomized controlled trial to see how much effect it had: Wiki: weight loss & water Drinking water prior to each meal may help suppress appetite.
It was a medical doctor, Fareydoon Batmanghelidj, who researched the benefits of water for over 30 years and exposed the simplest natural cure to a vast number of health problems. The short video 'The Water Cure' below briefly explains this new medical science of the healing properties of water: [ 9:49 mns long ]
Video: Replacing coffee, juices with water; dehydration causes allergies, asthma, over weight & obesity; Water Part Two 9:52 mns:
Video Water Cure 3 6:03 mns
Video Weight loss from drinking water 3.54 mns:
How much water should you drink?
The water you drink should be separate from juices and everything else that you may drink. Average person really needs about four quarts of water a day.
To determine how much water you need each day, divide your body weight in half. The answer is the approximate number of water ounces you should drink daily. You should drink half of your body weight in ounces. If you weight 200 pounds, you should drink 100 ounces water [ 3.13 quarts, 2.98 liters or about 10-12 cups of water a day ]. If you weigh closer to 100 pounds you will need only about 50 ounces of water or about four 12-ounce glasses daily.
Be aware that you will urinate more often when you drink more water and that this is a normal body reaction. Key question for you: Do you have a normal working kidney and bladder that can excrete as much urine as you drink water?
SALT: Salt is good for you. Kendrick: salt is good 2014 McCallum: less chloride more mortality 2013 Silverman: More salt is good 2014 Salt regulates the amount of water that is held inside the cells. Salt also regulates the amount of water that is held outside the cells. The body needs salt to compensate for the natural losses in urine, respiration and perspiration. Salt also provides the minerals needed to make neuro-electricity. Salt needs to be balanced out by potassium and magnesium. Salt regulates sleep and many body functions like clearing the mucus in lungs, preventing muscle cramps, making strong bones, preventing varicose veins and much more. Peregrine: water-salt cure 2008
The best salt to use is sea salt. Sea salt has 80 minerals that the body needs but which refined table salt lacks.
Table salt is refined and is not the same as sea salt. Many years ago table salt referred to as iodized in that the refined salt grains were sprayed with iodine. The iodine in salt was a way of providing just enough iodine to prevent goiter. However, this process has been discontinued. Table salt is has been refined and the natural minerals have been removed.
As a rough rule, you need about half a teaspoon of salt for every 10 glasses of water or a quarter teaspoon per quart of water. Take salt throughout the day. Warning: Observe the rule of thumb amount of salt per day. Make sure to drink enough water to wash the excess salt out of the body.
Controversy: According to World Health organization [WHO] Report of 2014, excess consumption of dietary sodium is associated with increased risk of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. It has been estimated that excess sodium intake was responsible for 1.7 million deaths from cardiovascular causes globally in 2010. The main dietary source of sodium worldwide is salt. However, sodium can be found in other forms, and the main source of dietary sodium consumption depends on the cultural context and dietary habits of the population. In many countries processed foods are the main source of sodium. WHO neglected to mention that salt is essential for human health. WHO: Salt & health 2014
WHO report neglected the latest report about salt consumption, published in JAMA, the Journal of the American Medial Association [ May 4, 2011. Vol. 305, N. 17 ]: "The report tried to prove that dietary low salt heart attack risk increased by 500%. The study made headlines when it reported that low salt intake actually increases the risk of dying from heart attack. The study looked at over 3600 patients for almost 8 years. It made major headlines. The researchers found that, the less salt the test subjects took in, the more deaths related to heart and vascular problems. The opposite was also true. The more salt the patients took in, the lower the heart attack and vascular problem rates. In fact, says Jan A. Staessen, M.D., the senior author of the study and the head of the hypertension laboratory at the University of Leuven, in Belgium, the findings "do not support the current recommendations of a generalized and indiscriminate reduction of [sodium] intake at the population level." Garnder: Low salt diet causes heart attack 2011
Blood tests do not show dehydration
Urine color: Urine color is a better indicator than blood tests are of dehydration. You drink enough water when your urine is colorless; colorless urine is a good sign you are drinking enough water for that day. When the urine becomes yellow, it means that the body is beginning to become dehydrated and when it becomes orange, then the body is truly dehydrated and some part of the body is suffering from dehydration. We can also monitor dehydration by the texture of the skin; if the skin is nice and loose and smooth, then we are hydrated. If it becomes creasy and shriveled, it means dehydration. The crow's feet on the face of elderly people is usually a sign of dehydration. The turkey neck under the chin is also a sign of dehydration. Adams: Batmanghelidj interview water
Video Dr Batmanghelidj about water, salt, pain, disease and healing 2:10 hours:
Controversy about salt: 37:13 mns. Table salt, Celtic salt vs Himalayan salt; [all salt retains water]:
Thank you for your patience and reading this far. Your reward, besides drinking more good healing water and a pinch of salt, is to watch the fun video below:
This author reviewed the scientific explanations and claims made by Batmanghelidj and searched for supporting evidence from other scientists. Is there any validity in the arguments put forth by Batmanghelidj that water can heal? Indeed, there is a lot of scientific truth that water can heal and restore many sick and feeling bad persons to good health. He not only listed all the benefits of the right amount of water and unrefined sea salt, but also suggested other minerals, enzymes, hour-long walks twelve hours apart, sunlight, wholesome food and other good things as part of the healing process. The water cure theory makes a lot of sense!
There are a lot of commercially vested articles on the internet about the benefits of water but these commercialized articles offer no research evidence to support their claims. This article provides much of the missing evidence to support that water can heal and help to lose weight. You should consult your medical doctor when drinking water to lose weight or to alleviate health problems.
Most important, on't wait to drink until you get thirsty, because that's an error. Unfortunately, the National Academy of Sciences and some other people recently have been telling people to wait until they get thirsty before they drink. Adams: Batmanghelidj interview water is another example of controversy about water and salt.
Apparently, one needs to drink a lot of water at the proper time, with a pinch of sea salt, for water to act as a healer. The body heals all diseases at same time. The body heals everything! But .... it needs adequate amount of nutrients to do so; including lots of water as well as good nutrition, sunlight and exercise.
Be Water-dehyrated Aware! It is easy to understand what water does in your body, but bear in mind there is more to it than just simply drinking water. You must learn to rehydrate your body gradually and carefully. Drinking an excess of water can flush out the electrolytes that your body needs.
You need to recognize your own particular early indicators of thirst. Not everyone is the same. You must learn what can happen to your own body when it becomes dehydrated. Not every body registers drought in the same way or in a common location. Depending on where the drought has settled, the initial indicators are different in different people. "You are not sick. You are thirsty. Don’t treat thirst with medications." Batmanghelidj Water cures
Water healing controversy: Water is also touted by many as a healer and cure. Medical doctor, Fareydoon Batmanghelidj, has stated that he has prescribed water and salt to sick and diseased persons for over 30 years and successfully alleviated inflammation, pain and many diseases. In spite of such claims being dismissed by US Federal Drug Administration, The Institutes of Health, National Academy of Sciences and most medical doctors, there are many practitioners and persons who believe that water can heal and cure. The controversy has been silently heating up since 1990. Hall: deception about water cure 2010 Muckelbauer: Review water intake & weight 2013
Batmanghelidj professes that the American Medical Association and the National Institutes of Health have rejected the idea that water can heal and cure. "They refuse to study the medicinal effects of water in place of the drugs they routinely push their members or followers to use." Batmanghelidj Water cures There is a lot of hypocrisy in the medical and public health field and one of these is not acknowledging that water and salt do work while at the same time, using saline solution IVs in Hospital emergency wards. That is, high levels of water and salt solution to keep their patients alive in a hospital but denying that water can heal and prevent illnesses and diseases!
A major critique of Batmanghelidj's book: Your Body's Many Cries for Water is his writing style. While he does a super job of simplifying the complex chemistry and physiology information for readers, he mixes good scientific information with his views about the practitioners pushing drugs by criticizing medical, drug and government establishments. His writing style does not always give or specify supporting references for scientific data. All of his documentation is listed at the end of the book. Collectively, the book is easy to read and understand, but cumbersome in supporting the science of his water claims. However, Batmanghelidj's writing style does not belittle the validity of the information about water. His theory of water cures is plain common sense. You should read one of his books and judge for yourself about water as a healer! Maybe you can save yourself a lot of money avoiding prescription drugs!
Your feedback is most appreciated: E-mail to: Author Walter Sorochan
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Komsomolets Moskovskiy, "Russian miracle water can cure cancer and restore youth," Pravda.ru, October 24, 2006. [Translated by Natalia Vysotskaya] Komsomolets: Water cures cancer 2006
"Russian scientists have discovered the cure for all diseases: Scientists immediately offered their product to the Surgical Institute of Vishnevsky and the St. Petersburg Institute RAN. Recently the biochemical tests have been completed. Believe it or not, the tests showed that the miracle water can cure infections and tumors."
Lam Dr., "Dehydration Page 4," DrLam - The Authority on Natural Medicine, February 24, 2009. Lam: Dehydration 2009
Lesser LI, Ebbeling CB, Goozner M, Wypij D, and Ludwig DS, "Relationship between funding source and conclusion among nutrition-related scientific articles," PLoS Med. January 4, 2007 (1):e5. Lesser: funding bias in nutrition research 2007 [ Conclusion: Industry funding of nutrition-related scientific articles may bias conclusions in favor of sponsors' products, with potentially significant implications for public health. ]
McCallum L. and others, "Serum chloride is an independent predictor of mortality in hypertensive patients," Hypertension, November 2013;62(5):836-43. McCallum: less chloride more mortality 2013 [ Low, not high Serum Cl- (<100 mEq/L), is associated with greater mortality risk independent of obvious confounders.]
Malik VS, Schulze MB, Hu FB. Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain: a systematic review. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;84:274–288. Malik: soft drinks & weight gain 2006 [Sufficient review of research evidence exists for public health strategies to discourage consumption of sugary drinks as part of a healthy lifestyle.]
McMillan Leigh, "Plain water has surprising impact on blood pressure," Reporter, VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY MEDICAL CENTER'S WEEKLY NEWSPAPER, July 08, 2010. McMillan: Water lowers BP 2010
Researchers [ David Robertson, M.D., ] at Vanderbilt University Medical Center have shown that ordinary water — without any additives — does more than just quench thirst. It has some other unexpected, physiological effects. It increases the activity of the sympathetic — fight or flight — nervous system, which raises alertness, blood pressure and energy expenditure. Although water does not significantly raise blood pressure in healthy young subjects with intact baroreflexes, the investigators found that it does increase sympathetic nervous system activity and constrict blood vessels (which prevents pooling of blood in the extremities). These findings prompted the American Red Cross to conduct a study of water drinking as a method for reducing fainting responses. The study found that drinking 16 ounces of water before blood donation reduced the fainting response by 20 percent. Because drinking water raises sympathetic nervous system activity — and consequently energy expenditure — it does promote weight loss.
Mercola, "Water: The Single Most Important Element for Your Health," January 29, 2011. Marcola: Water importance 2011
Muckelbauer Rebecca, Giselle Sarganas, Anke Grüneis, and Jacqueline Müller-Nordhorn, "Association between water consumption and body weight outcomes: a systematic review," The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, June 26, 2013. Muckelbauer: Review water intake & weight 2013
" Studies of individuals dieting for weight loss or maintenance suggest a weight-reducing effect of increased water consumption, whereas studies in general mixed-weight populations yielded inconsistent results. The evidence for this association is still low, mostly because of the lack of good-quality studies. "
O'Connor, "Really? The Claim: Drinking Water Can Help Lower the Risk of Diabetes," January 16, 2012. O'Connor: water lowers diabetes 2012
Peregrine Jan, "Dr. Batman's Water/Salt Cure For Dehydration-Produced Diseases," Epinions, August 19, 2006 [Updated Jan 13, 2008]. Peregrine: water-salt cure 2008
Pollack Gerald H, The Fourth Phase of Water, Ebner and Sons Publishers, 2013. Pollack: Book 4 Phases of water
Popin Barry et al., "Water and food consumption patterns of U.S. adults from 1999 to 2001," Obesity Research, 2005, 2146–52 Popin: Water consumption patterns 2005 [ Research has shown that people who drink lots of water eat more vegetables and fruits, drink fewer sugary beverages, and consume fewer total calories. Higher-educated, older adults will more likely be water consumers. This lends some credence to the fact that the target of a public health message should be younger, less-educated adults. ]
Rylander, R., "Mineral water intake reduces blood pressure among subjects with low urinary magnesium and calcium levels,"BMC Public Health 2004, 4:56, 1471-2458. Rylander: mineral water reduces HBP 2004
Rogers Robert, Water is the ticket to good health, Zero Point Healers. Rogers: water good health
Roussel Ronan and others, "Low Water Intake and Risk for New-Onset Hyperglycemia," Abstract, Diabetes Care, September 4, 2011. Roussel: Low water intake & hyperglycemia 2011 [ French scientists tracked more than 3,000 healthy men and women ages 30 to 65 for nearly a decade. All had normal blood sugar levels at the start of the research. After nine years, about 800 had developed Type 2 diabetes or high blood sugar. But those who consumed the most water, 17 to 34 ounces a day, had a risk roughly 30 percent lower than that of those who drank the least. ]
Silverman Judy & Lisa Tolin, "Pour on the Salt? New Research Suggests More Is OK," NBC News, August 13th 2014. Silverman: More salt is good 2014
Sinatra Stephen, "Lower Your Blood Pressure Naturally by Drinking Water," Dr>Sinatra America's @1 Integrative Cardiologist, November 20, 2014. Sinatra: Water lowers BP 2014
Spigt M and others, "A randomized trial on the effects of regular water intake in patients with recurrent headaches," Fam Pract, August 2012; 29(4):370-5. Spigt: water reviews headache Randomized 2012[ Drinking more water resulted in a statistically significant improvement in relieving headaches ]
Spigt M and others, "Increasing the daily water intake for the prophylactic treatment of headache: a pilot trial," Eur J Neurol, Sepember 12 2005, (9):715-8. Spigt: Water relieves headache 2005
Stookey JD, Constant F, Popkin BM, Gardner CD, "Drinking water is associated with weight loss in overweight dieting women independent of diet and activity," (November 2008). Stookey: water & wt loss 2008
"This study tested for associations between absolute and relative increases in drinking water and weight loss over 12 months. Results: Absolute and relative increases in drinking water were associated with significant loss of body weight and fat over time, independent of covariates. Discussion: The results suggest that drinking water may promote weight loss in overweight dieting women."
WebMD, "Dehydration in Adults." WebMD: Dehydration
Welsh Cheryl, "Cold War physics in neuroscience is now revealing the probability of a successfully weaponized brain," Mind Justice, May 2013. Welsh: How brain works 2013
WHO, Global Report. WHO: Salt & health 2014
Wikipedia, "Weight loss effects of water." Wiki: weight loss & water