Posted August 01, 2013; revised and updated September 22; 2016 Disclaimer: The information presented here is for informative and educational purposes only and is not intended as curative or prescriptive advice.
The purpose of this article is to summarize and update the most recent information about the role that vitamin hormone D plays in optimal health and prevention of diseases and infections. The information is referenced and documented and in one location, saving the reader endless hours of doing all the relevant searches. Researcher is independent and has no vested interests.
Convenience Shortcut: The information about vitamin D is huge! You may want to take a shortcut to some special information about vitamin D, then navigate to another topic of your choice. Such a convenience is provided in the Menu Topics table below. You can go directly to a special sub-topic of your choice by clicking on the desired topic; and then come back to the Menu table. A brief but incomplete summary about vitamin D is presented below for your convenience.
"Ample intake of vitamin D [ about 2,000 IU/day ] can cut breast cancer incidence by half. If vitamin D levels were increased worldwide, 600,000 cases of breast and other cancers could be prevented each year. Nearly 150,000 cases of cancer could be prevented in the United States alone. Orthomolecular Med and vit D 2007
A four-year study of 1,179 healthy, postmenopausal women showed that taking calcium, along with nearly three times the U.S. government's recommendation of 400IU of vitamin D3, showed a dramatic 60 percent or greater reduction in all forms of cancer. Additionally, there is growing evidence that maintaining vitamin D levels in the body during the winter can prevent the flu and other viral infections by strengthening the immune system." Orthomolecular Med and vit D 2007
It has long been known as
vitamin D cured rickets. But today, vitamin D is being hailed for being able to
do much more than that. Scientists have known for some time that vitamin D
helps the body to absorb calcium, in maintaining bone density, and in preventing
osteoporosis. In an effort to prevent osteoporosis we have become consumers of
calcium and vitamin D supplements.
While this misunderstanding was silently taking place, another bigger controversy Keenan: The-Vitamin-D-Debate 2016 was unfolding: Sunshine boosts cancer-fighting vitamin D! Oh! ... but doesn't sunshine cause skin cancer? How can it be both ways? And do we really need vitamin D in order to use calcium in the body? This is the sunshine dilemma we find ourselves in 2010 and 2011.
A major controversy has been brewing in the last few years about whether sunlight exposure is essential and safe. The conventional "elderly" medical community has been taught that sunlight is bad for health and imposed this incorrect information on to the public: "You must cover up your skin, wear sunscreen and avoid any sunlight exposure at all if you want to be healthy."
This "stay out of the sun" hype has been challenged by numerous epidemiological studies and researchers. Sullivan The-Miracle-of-Vitamin-D 2000 Lusky, Vit D testing 2009 These studies show that the risk of many cancers increases when you do not have sufficient exposure to sunlight. Sunlight is actually good and essential for you.
For many summers, people have slathered and sprayed on sunscreens and fretted about SPF factors while scrambling to protect themselves from ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation, a component of sunlight. Dermatologists had linked UV-B exposure to the development of skin cancer, including lethal melanomas. But according to a new theory based on research, sealing our skins off from the sun may be causing more cancer deaths than it prevents.
“If you look at these cancers as a group,” says Edward Giovannucci, who is also a professor of nutrition and epidemiology at the Harvard School of Public Health, ”you’ll see that 30 people die of these cancers for every one who dies of skin cancer.” So we need to put exposure to sunshine and the potential of causing cancer in perspective with cancer prevention!
Recent clinical studies since the year 2000 provide new knowledge that explains how Vitamin D is changing the role it plays in a growing number of conditions and diseases. This has ignited controversy between the medical field, regulatory agencies, commercial enterprises and the public at large. Who do you believe?
Today vitamin D has emerged as one of the most important preventive factors in human health. Nearly every organ in your body has a receptor for D, meaning they need a certain amount of it to function properly. Vitamin D is essential in the functioning of most body processes; indeed, maintaining optimal well-being and preventing illnesses and diseases. Woollams: Vitamin D is a natural cancer preventative 2010
World Epidemic:We have an ignored world health epidemic: " Vitamin D is by far the greatest deficiency in the civilized world. Surveys show that at least 70% of all Americans are vitamin D deficient, and up to 85% of African-American women of child-bearing age are deficient. 48% of young girls aged 9 to 11 are deficient. 76% of pregnant mothers are severely vitamin D deficient causing widespread deficiencies in their unborn children. 90% of all hospital patients are deficient, and 99% of nursing home residents are deficient. 65% of Chicago residents are deficient and even doctors living in southern Florida are 42% deficient. It is estimated that at least 1 billion people worldwide are deficient."
The majority of American, Canadians and Europeans have low blood levels of vitamin D and don't know it. The exact number of persons deficient in vitamin D is unknown! Millions suffer from unexplained illnesses and chronic disorders that appear to be related to vitamin D. Mercola: vitamin-d-spray Vit D Deficiency
Limitations of 2008 research:"Many of the studies in the literature failed to control for all relevant confounders, such as seasonality, baseline vitamin D and calcium status, body mass index, age, underlying disease, and compliance. Researchers do not report 25(OH)D units in a consistent way; some investigators use ng/L and others use nmol/L. Various 25(OH)D assays are available, but results differ by analytic method, within the same analytic method, and among analytic laboratories using the same method; these discrepancies lead to inadequate quality control of assays. The availability of a standard reference material for 25(OH)D should soon improve this situation. The Vitamin D External Quality Assessment Scheme (DEQAS) certifies laboratories that meet performance targets for 25(OH)D assays (information on DEQAS is available at . Hollis encouraged research and clinical laboratories conducting 25(OH)D assays to enroll in DEQAS." Brannon: conference update on vit D 2008
New vit D Recommendations:
The Institute of Medicine, an arm of the National Academy of Sciences, recommended the following vitamin intake on November 30, 2010: IOM: Report 2010 New dietary guidelines for 2015-2020 are much the same!
Understanding Vitamin D[ Cholecalciferol ]
What happens to vitamin D in the body?
Skin cells have 7-dehydrocholesterol or D1 and, when exposed to sunlight, D1 is converted to vitamin D. Holick: Vit D future abstract 2004 Go to animation, in references, to view another version of this synthesis.
The human body has the ability to naturally make vitamin D3 cholecalciferol in the skin. This is important information that everyone needs to know; a fact that has profound implications for human well-being. The skin produces approximately 10,000 IU vitamin D in response 10–30 minutes summer sun exposure — 25 times more than the out-dated US government's recommendation of 400 - 600 IU per day!
Disease Prevention:Just how big is the role of vitamin D in the body? Tufts Univ Disease List | Lusky: Vit D testing 2009| Clark: Vit D Dissertation review 2010
Deficiencies: The illustration below portrays the many diseases caused by vitamin D deficiencies:
Although vitamin D is not a vitamin but instead works more as a hormone, it is a major factor in regulating many body processes. Vitamin D deficiency predisposes us to:
The illustration below shows that pain sensitivity is greater when the serum level of vitamin D 25(OH)D (ng/ml) is low [ red columns ]. Pain diminishes when the serum D level is high, as exemplified by the green columns. This information does not take into account the co-factors that may further deminish pain level.
Please be aware that vitamin D needs co-factors [ helpers ] to make things happen in the body. That is, co-factor deficiency even though there may be sufficient vitamin D present, could result in many of the above body problems. Co-factors make things happen in the body.
By ignoring/overlooking the possibility that vitamin D and inter-related co-factors may have on maintaining body processes and preventing diseases, the medical field has been unable to fix many of these health problems.
Vitamin D role in preventing cancer:
You-Tube video about cancer & vitamin D: [ 7:45 mns long ]
Vit D and Flu:Influenza and the common cold are the most common infectious diseases in human beings. Claims have been made that high doses of vitamin D supplements have helped fight off flu infections. "An interventional study showed that vitamin D reduces the incidence of respiratory infections in children." Henderson: Testimonial that vitamin D stopped influenza 2010
A study  in the Archives of Internal Medicine looked at 19,000 adults and adolescents and found that those with the lowest blood levels of vitamin D were 40 percent more likely to have had a recent cold or flu, compared to those with the highest levels. In another study, women taking 2,000 IU of vitamin D (to protect bones) had an average of nine episodes of colds and flu over three years of taking the supplement — compared to an average of 30 episodes in a group of women taking 200 IU of vitamin D. Dr. Cannell is convinced that a low blood level of vitamin D is the reason people are vulnerable to cold and flu viruses. "Vitamin D dramatically increases the production of the body's own antimicrobial peptides," he told me [Gottlieb], for the "Cold and Flu" chapter of my most recent book, Speed Healing (Bottom Line Books). "If you have sufficiently high blood levels of vitamin D, you'll have enough of those peptides to kill cold and flu viruses before they have a chance to penetrate the mucosal barrier." Gottlieb: Preventing colds & Flu 2011
Researcher Mawson has suggested a link between vitamins A & D with influenza. However, research is lacking on the role other co-factors may play along with vitamins A and D; like vitamins K, C and B-complex. Mawson: Vits A & D role in influenza 20113
The Truth:Truth is, most people, including many medical doctors, don't know the real story on vitamin D and health. Dawson: Protein diet affect on vit D It is only since 2000 that we have had a surge of new research about vitamin D; such new information that medical doctors graduating before the year 2000 probably may not be aware of it. Mercola: vitamin-d-spray
So here are 15 facts as reported from an interview between reporter Mike Adams and research professor Dr. Michael Holick:
"1. Vitamin D is produced by your skin in response to exposure to ultraviolet radiation from natural sunlight. Absorption UVB in skin
Although everyone is vulnerable to vitamin-D deficiency, especially in winter, certain groups are particularly predisposed:
Sources of Vitamin D:Vitamin D is not abundant in our usual food choices, so we get most of the vitamin from sun exposure and multivitamin supplements
1. Ultra violet wave B [ UVB ] sunlight is natural and safest way: Dehydrocholesterol, available in the skin , is converted into vitamin D, and in turn transformed into previtamin D3 (cholecalciferol), the most readily absorbed form of vitamin D.
2. Foods that already have vitamin D: such as fish, cod liver oil, mushrooms, eggs, cheese Swiss.
3. Fortified foods such as milk, orange juice, yogurt
There may be discrepancies between the reported label amount of vitamin D and the actual amount in some fortified products. Research is scant but here is one such example: "when milk, "supposedly high" in fortified vitamin D, was tested, "seven out of ten samples contained less than 80% of the amount of vitamin D that was listed on the label. Half didn’t even contain 50%, and 14% of the skim milk samples contained no detectable vitamin D (NEJM 1993;329:1507; and 1992;326:1178)." Nutri-Notes, Vol.4, #6, Nov-Dec 1997
Conclusion: Fortified foods may be cheating on the amount of vitamin D in their products! Buyer beware! You may not be able to trust what the food label reports on nutrient analysis.
4. Supplements: Most multivitamins are fortified with the current IU for vitamin D; 400 IU; far short of what the body needs for optimal health.
5. Plants: pre-vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) is derived from plant sources and can only be obtained through diet.
Why are we having problems getting enough vitamin D when we have all these ways of getting it? One reason is that UVB is not available all the time north of latitude 37 [US-Canada border]. Another reason is the biochemical individuality of people. More on these issues later on.
Production of vitamin D in nature always appears to require the presence of some UV light; even vitamin D in foodstuffs is ultimately derived from organisms, from mushrooms to animals, which are not able to synthesize it except through the action of sunlight at some point in the synthetic chain. For example, fish contain vitamin D only because they ultimately exist on calories from ocean algae which synthesize vitamin D in shallow waters from the action of solar UV. Sunlight triggers the formation of vitamin D in the skin, which is then hydroxylated or activated in the liver and kidney into a more active and useable vitamin D, or hormone calciferol.[ synthesized ]
Vitamin D's influence on key biological functions vital to one's health and well-being mandates that vitamin D no longer be ignored by the health care industry nor by individuals striving to achieve and maintain a greater state of health.
How much sunlight exposure do you need?
Our bodies are programmed to make vitamin D from sunshine, just as plants are. Plants do so through photosynthesis and using carbon dioxide while we do by way of synthesis of cholesterol in our skin. We have evolved with parallel abilities.
Unfortunately, we as people do not have the same ability to absorb sunlight as plants. Many of us live in areas where the sun is not as intense as in other areas. In northern climates sunlight is too weak in the winter months to make adequate vitamin D – about a six-month period referred to as ‘Vitamin D Winter’. We need to be aware of areas with less sun intensity.
Try Dr. James Dowd's online sun exposure calculator
Below is a map of the world and the amount of potential sunlight [ needed ultra-violet wave ] available in different areas to synthesize vitamin D.
Canadian Cancer Society was the first to recommend, in 2007, that all of its adult citizens begin taking 1,000(IU) per day of vitamin D [ Zones 2 and 3 ]. This initial recommendation has been updated to 4000IU per day for adults and 2000IU per day for infants.
Canada's northern latitude was a factor in the decision, as was the growing body of evidence showing the vitamin's effectiveness in lowering instances of cancer. In the UK [ Zone 3 ], doctors have already been told they're doing a disservice to patients if they tell them to avoid sunlight. They're already being advised to tell people to get more sunlight and not to wear sunscreen every time they go outside, at least not for the first few minutes of sun exposure. So Canada and UK are well ahead of the U.S. in this thinking.
Dosage:Minimal acceptable serum blood level is 50 ng/ml (125 nmol/L). "In a recent study, Heaney, et al expanded on Bruce Hollis's seminal work by analyzing five studies in which both the parent compound (cholecalciferol) and 25(OH)D levels were measured. They found that the body does not reliably begin storing cholecalciferol in fat and muscle tissue until 25(OH)D levels get above 50 ng/ml (125 nmol/L). The average person starts to store cholecalciferol at 40 ng/ml (100 nmol/L), but at 50 ng/ml (125 nmol/L) virtually everyone begins to store it for future use. That is, at levels below 50 ng/ml (125 nmol/L), the body uses up vitamin D as fast as you can make it, or take it, indicating chronic substrate starvation --- not a good thing. 25(OH)D levels should be between 50–80 ng/ml (125–200 nmol/L), year-round." Cannell ideal level vit D
The above dosage recommendation from the Vitamin D council, headed by executive director and researcher John Cannell, is supported by the most recent research over that proposed by US Office of Dietary Supplements. There is no consensus about the appropriate reference range and cut-offs for deficiency or insufficiency, as well as optimal and possible toxicity status. Rollins: Vit D testing 2009 Cannell ideal level vit D
Correlating units of measuring Vit D
Researchers use two measures for evaluating the amount of vitamin D-3 in the body. When blood is tested to assess vitamin D status, what is actually measured is the metabolically active 25-hydroxyvitamin D form of the vitamin in the serum. The blood serum measure is average 25(OH)D level (ng/ml) and the other is international units [IU] in a vitamin D-3 supplement. [data compiled from 13006 subjects] The chart below helps one to link the two measures. For example, if you ingest 1000IU of vitamin D-3, then this amount would be approximately equal to 37 mg/ml in your serum blood. And if you ingested a vitamin D-3 supplement of 5000IU, then your vitamin D serum blood test should record a level of about 56 mg/ml in the blood serum.
How much sunlight exposure do we need?This depends on many variables. But just walking in the sunshine late afternoon doesn't do it!
The reason it is difficult to get adequate vitamin D from sunlight is that while UV-A is present throughout the day, the amount of UV-B present has to do with the angle of the sun's rays.
Thus, UV-B is present only during midday hours at higher latitudes, and only with significant intensity in temperate or tropical latitudes. Only 5 percent of the UV-B light range goes through glass and it does not penetrate clouds, smog or fog.Glerup: The-Miracle-of-Vitamin-D 2000 Park: balancing risks 2010
You can calculate the amount of UVB needed: Calculation. However, this can be complicated and inaccurate.
Biochemical Individuality is a variable:Ethnicity Hall: UC Davis study 2010 Every person absorbs and/or produces vitamin D in varying amounts. Mercola: vitamin-d-spray Wasmeier: Melanosomes 2008 A person has just so many genetically pre-determined "vitamin D factories" per cm of skin, some parts of the body having more factories than other parts. More skin will produce more D but again, this is an incredible variable in 'amount'. UV-B intensity, skin color, skin age and your genes all alter the outcome. Sullivan: The-Miracle-of-Vitamin-D 2000 LE Mag: Drug side effects 2003
Skin type:How do I know what my skin type is?
Accurate determination of skin type requires experience. However, you may estimate your skin type using the following table:
Knowing your skin type can help you to avoid sun burns! It can also help you get sunshine vitamin D.
There are numerous contradictory reports that we need from five to 30 minutes of exposure to sunlight for light skin colored persons, and much more for darker skinned persons, in order to help the body synthesize enough vitamin D for one day. The amount of vitamin D produced depends on the intensity of the UVB in the sun and many other factors. Darker-skinned individuals may need 5-10 times more exposure than a fair-skinned person to make the same amount of vitamin D. Hughes:video presentation on nutrients and supplements 2009
As a rule of thumb, a 30 minute full-body sunbath at midday without sunscreen will provide from 10,000 IU to 20,000 IU of vitamin D; and a possible sunburn.
Although the number of subjects in the UC Davis study by Hall was small, it adds credibility to the recommendation that Americans need between 1000 to 3000 IU every second day. Hall: UC Davis study 2010
Too much D may be as unhealthy as too little.
So how do you really know if you are getting an adequate amount of vitamin D from all sources? Newspapers and TV reports add to the confusion by overlooking that we are biochemically different and have different vitamin D needs.
Get a D test:
Test Update 2016: The Do it yourself test is available at www.grassrootshealth.net for your sponsorship of $65 (US). At a computer, logon to www.grassrootshealth.net. Click to ‘Order Now’ and register for D*action. Your vitamin D test kit will be mailed to you. Complete the blood spot test and mail it in. 7-10 days after Grassroots health receives your card they will email you a link to your online results.
Testing for vitamin D is somewhat controversial. New research breakthroughs are taking place very fast. As of June 20, 2010, there is no agreed to "gold standard" as a bioassay technique or acceptable level in interpreting the vitamin D tests. Lusky: Vit D testing 2009 Vit D testing Binkley:test standardization 2004 But this controversy should not discourage anyone from trying to find out whether they are deficient in vitamin D.
25-hydroxyvitamin D blood serum test is the only way to tell if you have or are taking the correct amount of vitamin D, need to take any D, or if your sun habits are sufficient. Too little vitamin D may contribute to many degenerative diseases. Because of the varied ethnicities, latitudes and lifestyles in the United States [ and most of Europe and Asia too ] the only way to safely use supplemental vitamin D is test, test and retest. Click on the Vitamin D Testing link for a relatively inexpensive way to monitor your D. You also should make sure that your medical doctor understands how to interpret test results.
Getting a single vitamin D test should cost about $ 40.00. Ask your doctor to allow you to get a 25-hydroxyvitamin D test to find out if you are deficient in vitamin D. Then he can adjust your dosage so that blood levels are between 50-80ng/mL [ or 125 - 200 nM/L ] year-round. This is an important test consideration for those living in northern United States and all of Canada and not getting enough UV2 during the entire year. Remember: It is the amount of vitamin D in the blood that counts and not how much sunshine you are exposed to, or get from other sources.
A new test for vitamin D is being validated. It is based on calcium levels being lowered by insufficient vitamin D levels. This future test measures calcium in urine and would cost about $ 8.00. Cox urine test for Vit D 2010
Need for more than just vitamin D or sunshine
Having adequate amount of vitamin D is not enough for the body to be able to use vitamin D. Dawson: Protein diet affect on vit D 2009 The body needs a spark to ignite the use of vitamin D and this is done by vitamin D co-factors: e.g. magnesium, calcium, zinc, boron, genestein, iodine, vitamin A, vitamin C and vitamin K12. [ vitamin D's co-factors ] Magnesium is the most important of these co-factors. In fact, it is common medical practice to raise vitamin D levels to exacerbate any underlying magnesium deficiency. If one is having problems supplementing with vitamin D, a magnesium deficiency could be the reason why. [ As a reminder: magnesium Sirus: magnesium insulin_medicine 2008 is equally as important a co-factor in maintaining health as vitamin D, vitamin C, calcium, iron and all other nutrients. ] Park: balancing risks 2010
Don't put all your eggs in the D test:What you may really need is a total diet analysis of all the foods and drinks you consume. This idea is supported by the overwhelming number of Americans who are overweight and obese. Something is just not right with the American diet and lifestyle! If you have a weight problem, chronic disorders and recurring illnesses, then it may be time for a total diet and lifestyle analysis as well as a vitamin D test! Beun: Tomatoes fight osteoporosis 2010
Best way to get Sunlight:although unreliable, is the best, safest and only natural source of vitamin D. Many scientists and medical doctors point out that humans make 90 percent of their vitamin D naturally from sunlight [ ultraviolet B ] exposure to the skin; [ Holick,] . Although proponents argue that humans can get Vitamin D from a few foods that naturally contain or are fortified with supplemental vitamin D, the amount in fortified foods is just 10 percent of what the most conservative vitamin D researchers now say we need daily. In contrast, sun exposure to the skin makes thousands of units of vitamin D naturally in half hour or less of time. Lambert: too much sunscreen 2010 >Brody: Get sunshine 2010
Our bodies prefer making vitamin D instead of ingesting vitamin D supplements, thereby allowing safer and more effective utilization in our bodies. The body controls the amount of vitamin D to be synthesized and prevents toxicity from sunlight. The body automatically turns off making more vitamin D when it reaches an adequate level.
Safe way to get vitamin D:
According to Dr. Michael Holick, from Boston University: Holick vit D Def 2007[ approximate interpretation ]
Dosage assumed: 10,000 IU per exposure.
Do it right: You will need to experiment to find out the amount of sunlight exposure that is best for you. Monitoring your exposure with a vitamin D test will help!
And remember: After exposing your body to about 10 or more minutes of sunshine in the heat of the day [ with about 40% of body exposure ], use a sunscreen with SPF 30 or higher on your face and wear a wide-brimmed hat, especially if you’re going to be outside for any length of time. Healthmagazine
You do not need to get all sunlight exposure in one time period. You can get some sunshine while walking in a parking lot, or gardening, or while walking or playing in the sun. Every little bit of exposure adds up. Your body can store vitamin D and use it later, as needed.
Researcher Sullivan suggests that we "do not take D supplement in amounts larger than 2,000 IU daily from all sources without clinical testing, physician guidance, or cautious personal monitoring if a physician is unavailable." Sullivan: The-Miracle-of-Vitamin-D 2000
Best way to get sunlight vitamin D:
too much ‘D’ from dietary supplements may cause the body to over-process calcium [ and cause toxicity ], nobody really knows for sure how much supplementary vitamin D is safe. On the other hand, the body does not have a problem with sunlight-induced vitamin D – the safe way to get vitamin D is when your body makes it! US nutrient regulatory body is scheduled to issue new vitamin D guidelines in the summer of 2010. New guidelines 2015
The human body has an automated mechanism to turn off the synthesis of vitamin D when a required amount has been reached from sun exposure. Only sunning between 10 am and 2 pm during summer months [ or winter months in southern latitudes ] for 20-120 minutes, depending on skin type and color, will form adequate vitamin D before skin burning occurs. Sullivan The-Miracle-of-Vitamin-D 2000 Matsuoka 1941
ALERT Delay shower:takes about 20 to 30 minutes [ with about 40% of body exposure ] for the body of most persons to convert skin cholesterol into D1. The body thereafter begins a slow process of absorbing D1 into the blood stream; taking 30 to 90 minutes to complete the absorption. In most instances this duration of time is insignificant; except to those who shower immediately after exposure to the sun. Many cholesterol - D1 skin cells will probably be washed off during an immediate shower; hence the amount of potential vitamin D being absorbed would be greatly diminished. Go to top
ALERT: When is it enough sunshine?Although the body may no longer make raw vitamin D, the body can get sunburned from excess radiation. The body monitors exposure to sunlight and sends warning signals: your skin starts to itch and starts turning a pink or reddish color; letting you know that you need to stop "frying your skin" .... stop becoming a hamburger!
Avoiding sunburn: The best advice is to gradually expose your skin to the sun. Start out with about 10-15 minutes of sunshine on your skin, then gradually increase the time of exposure a few minutes each day for the next two weeks. This allows melanin in the skin to become activated and create a natural body shield against UV rays.
On the issue of sunlight exposure, by the way, it turns out that super antioxidants in the diet greatly boost your body's ability to handle sunlight without burning. We need to balance the amount of sunlight we need with the risk of sunburn. This balancing act depends on where you live, the intensity of the sunlight, the color of your skin and your biochemical individuality. We all have different bodies and our body needs are not exactly the same! Park: balancing risks 2010
Dealing with the controversy:
While the the controversy spins and the medical experts get their act together, it is wise to consult with your knowledgeable doctor about taking D supplements.
You need to be under a pharmacist - doctor's care as Vitamin D needs to be balanced out with calcium intake and other co-factors, so that osteoporosis and other body essential functions dependent on calcium and vitamin D can be monitored closely. Remember: biochemical individuality makes all of us different and we may need different amounts of vitamin D and sunshine! controversy spins
Dermatologists, the medical profession and mass media have created a fear of cancer and that cancer is caused by sunlight.
Sunshine exposure estimates regarding the threshold of vitamin D toxicity are unreasonably low and based on old, poorly designed studies.
The previous Recommended Daily Allowance [ RDA] stems from the work of the eccentric Scottish Lord some 80 years ago, and the RDA was set at 5 to 10 micrograms (about 200 IU´s) per day over 50 years ago. The regulatory bodies setting RDA nutrient amounts for the USA public did so when definitive research on cancer and sunlight exposure was lacking. The current vitamin D requirement of 400IU for adults was set years ago with no scientific basis. Lusky: Vit D testing 2009 Hollis Adeq nut vit D 2007
An increase in the number of skin cancers created a fear and confusion about whether sunshine and vitamin D were important and essential for the body. We do not need to be sun worshippers but we do need some "common sense" body exposure to sunlight for good health.
For more information about cancer, diet, etc., go to: health related info
Conclusion:Final Comment about vitamin D: Just as we need to spend 30 or more minutes exercising, get adequate amount of sleep, and spend time eating a balanced meal, we need to deliberately plan getting UVB sunshine exposure each day. The length in minutes of sunshine exposure will vary with each person's biochemistry, intensity of the sunshine and where one lives. But the essential body need is deliberate sun exposure of about 10 to 30+ minutes per day that, in turn, the body needs to synthesize a safe amount of the hormone vitamin D.
For more You-Tube videos about vitamin D go to: Grassroots Health
For more health information:Go to main menu
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Absorption UVB in skin: Family Doctor: " Approximately five per cent of UV radiation striking the skin is immediately reflected; the remainder passes into the tissue, is bounced around by the contained particles and then passes back out again, or else is absorbed by molecules in the stratum corneum, epidermis or dermis. Absorption of the short-wavelength UVB (290 to 320 nm), if it occurs, is largely in the dead stratum corneum and the living epidermis, particularly in the latter by DNA and melanin, whereas the longer UVA (320 to 400 nm) is mostly transmitted to the dermis and absorbed there, predominantly by the haemoglobin in blood. " Absorption UVB in skin
Apperly Frank L., "The Relation of Solar Radiation to Cancer Mortality in North America," Cancer Research, December 20, 1941, pages 191-195. Cancer Research, December 20, 1941, pages 191-195. Apperly: Solar radiation & Cancer 1941
[Apperly 1941]. "The relation of solar radiation to cancer mortality in North America. Cancer Research 1, 191-195] first proposed that increased mortality from cancer in the north than in the south of the USA might be due to the south to north decrease in ambient solar radiation. This inverse association between ambient solar radiation and cancer mortality has been subsequently reported for cancers of the colon, breast, ovary and prostate. While the evidence that sunlight might be related to lower incidence or more favourable outcomes from cancer came initially from ecological studies, case-control and cohort studies have now shown a similar association of sun exposure with risks of colon, breast and prostate cancers in individuals, and other studies in individuals have found that serum and dietary vitamin D levels are associated with reduced risks of colorectal cancer and, less certainly, prostate cancer. Studies in individuals have recently also suggested an effect of sun exposure to reduce risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and to increase survival after a diagnosis of melanoma. Data on variation in survival from cancer by season of diagnosis suggest that sun exposure may also improve outcome from cancers of the breast, colon and prostate and Hodgkin lymphoma."
Animation: Below is an animation, made by
UV Guide UK and researchers such as Holick, Ferguson and Gehrmann in the United
States, that tries to summarize how your body, similar to a reptile, synthesizes vitamin D.
"The pathway begins when a cholesterol, provitamin D, [ full name
7-dehydrocholesterol, or 7DHC ] is manufactured by cells in the skin. When
exposed to UVB at wavelengths between 290 - 315nm, a simplified animation [
below] illustrates the vitamin D pathway.
[ light violet color ] Provitamin D, held within the cell membrane,
is converted very rapidly to previtamin D3. The peak production is at 297nm.
Previtamin D3 is then transformed by a re-arrangement of atoms in the molecule slowly, in warm skin, over one to two hours, to vitamin D3.
The vitamin D3 is released from the skin cell membranes and is taken up by a "vitamin D-binding protein&" into the plasma. It is thus carried in the bloodstream from the skin to the liver, where it is hydroxylated to calcediol, or 25-hydroxy-vitamin D3. This is the substance which is tested for in blood samples taken to assess vitamin D status.
Calcediol is then circulated in the bloodstream all around the body. In the kidneys, some is converted to the active hormone calcetriol. This plays a major part in calcium metabolism, governing the levels of calcium in the blood by controlling absorption of calcium from the gut and also from the bones, should dietary levels be inadequate for the body's needs. UV GuideUK
Associated Press, "How much vitamin D is enough? Report sets new levels," NBC News and news services, 11/30/2010. Assoc Press: vit D new recommendations 2010
Barnett Antony, "Revealed: how drug firms 'hoodwink' medical journalsPharmaceutical giants hire ghostwriters to produce articles - then put doctors' names on them," The Observer, December 7, 2003. Barnett: drug research scams 2003
Bell Robert I. , et la., "Conflict of Interest: The Common Thread Underlying Ethical Lapses," EJBO Electronic Journal of Business Ethics and Organization Studies, Vol. 10, No. 1, 2005. Bell: business ethics 2003
Beun Julie, "'Everyone should be on vitamin D' In the battle to reduce osteoporosis risks, tomatoes and supplements may be key tools," The Gizette(Montreal), November 9, 2010. Beun: Tomatoes fight osteoporosis 2010
Binkley N, Krueger D, Cowgill CS, Plum L, Lake E, Hansen KE, et al. "Assay variation confounds the diagnosis of hypovitaminosis D: a call for standardization." J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004;89:3152-57. Binkley test standardization 2004
Bischoff-Ferrari et al., " Monthly High-Dose Vitamin D Treatment for the Prevention of Functional Decline," JAMA Internal Medicine, January 4, 2016. Bischoff-Ferrari: Vit D elimination 2016
Brain Marshall, "How Sunburns and Sun Tans Work," Wilipedia. Brain: sunburns
Brannon Patsy M, Elizabeth A Yetley,Regan L Bailey and Mary Frances Picciano, " Vitamin D and Health in the 21st Century: an Update," American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 88, No. 2, 483S-490S, August 2008. Brannon: conference update on vit D 2008
Brody Jane E., "Head Out for a Daily Dose of Green Space," The New York Times, November 29, 2010. Brody: Get sunshine 2010
Burros Marian, "New Vitamin D Guidelines Call for Triple the D," Rodale News, December 01, 2010. Burros: Triple Vit D 2010
Campbell Eric G., et la., "Physician Professionalism and Changes in Physician-Industry Relationships From 2004 to 2009," Arch Intern Med. 2010;170(20):1820-1826. Campbell: PHARMA = MDs 2010
"We don't know. However, thanks to Bruce Hollis, Robert Heaney, Neil Binkley, and others, we now know the minimal acceptable level. It is 50 ng/ml. In a recent study, Heaney et al enlarged on Bruce Hollis's seminal work by analyzing five studies in which both the parent compound, cholecalciferol, and 25(OH)D levels were measured. It turn out that the body does not reliably begin storing the parent compound (cholecalciferol) in fat and muscle tissue until 25(OH)D levels get above 50 ng/ml. The average person starts to store cholecalciferol at 40 ng/ml, but at 50 ng/ml, virtually everyone begins to store it for future use. That is, at levels below 50 ng/ml, the body is usually using up the vitamin D as fast as you make it or take it, indicating chronic substrate starvation, not a good thing."
Cannell JJ, Vieth R., Holick MF., Grant WB, Madronich S., Garland CF., Giovannucci E., "Epidemic influenza and vitamin D." 2006 Dec;134(6):1129-40. Epub 2006 Sep 7. Cannell: Vit D and flu Report Summary 2006
Cannell John MD, Vitamin D Council, You-tube Video: Cannell: Real story about vitamin D
Cannell John, E-mail feedback to Walter Sorochan inquiry;
Carter GD., "25-hydroxyvitamin D assays: the quest for accuracy," Clin Chem 2009; 55:1300-02.
Clark Amy J., "A Best Practice Guideline for Screening and Treating Vitamin D Deficiency in a Primary Care Setting: Moving Beyond the Bones," Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements For the Degree of Doctor of Nursing Practice College of Nursing University of South Carolina 2010. Clark: Vit D Dissertation review 2010
Cohen Jay, "The Medical Profession's Culture of Corruption, Part 1," Medication Sense.com, Cohen: Culture of corruption1
Cox Jeremy, "Nemours clinic devising less expensive vitamin D test for children," The Florida Times Union, May 23, 2010. Cox urine test for Vit D 2010
Dawson-Hughes Susan S. Harris, Helen Rasmussen, Lingyi Song and Gerard E. Dallal, "Effect of Dietary Protein Supplements on Calcium Excretion in Healthy Older Men and Women," The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, January 14, 2009, Vol. 89, No. 3 1169-1173 Dawson: Protein diet affect on vit D 2009
Deyo Richard A., "Gaps, Tensions, and Conflicts in the FDA Approval Process:: Conflicts of Interest in the Approval Process," J Am Board Fam Med. 2004;17(2) © 2004 Deyo: FDA conflicts of interest 2004
Dietary Guidelines: The guidelines that will be implemented four years from now, 2010. New guidelines 2015
"Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Vitamin D," US Office of Dietary Supplements, November 13, 2009 Office of Dietary Supplements2009 •National Institutes of Health 2009. Dietary Supplements Fact sheet vitamin D
There is considerable discussion of the serum concentrations of 25(OH)D associated with deficiency (e.g., rickets), adequacy for bone health, and optimal overall health (Table 1). A concentration of <15 nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL) (or <37.5 nanomoles per liter [nmol/L]) is generally considered inadequate; concentrations >15 ng/ml (>37.5 nmol/L) are recommended. Higher levels are proposed by some (>30 ng/ml or >75 nmol/L) as desirable for overall health and disease prevention [ PubMed abstract ], but insufficient data are available to support them Advisory Com on nutrition: Update Vit D. Serum concentrations of 25(OH)D consistently >200 ng/ml (>500 nmol/L) are potentially toxic. Table 1: Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] Concentrations and Health* OLD INFO
* Serum concentrations of 25(OH)D are reported in both nanograms per
milliliter (ng/mL) and nanomoles per liter (nmol/L).
"An additional complication in assessing vitamin D status is in the actual measurement of serum concentrations of 25(OH)D. Considerable variability exists among the various assays available and among laboratories that conduct the analyses [ Carter | Hollis | Lensmeyer Vit D lab test ]. This means that compared to the actual concentration of 25(OH)D in a sample of blood serum, a falsely low or falsely high value may be obtained depending on the assay or laboratory used [Binkley test standardization ]. A standard reference material for 25(OH)D became available in July 2009 that will now permit standardization of values across laboratories."
Dietary sources: Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Vitamin D, US Office of Dietary Supplements US Office: Sources in food
Dignan Larry, " Vitamin D It's a linchpin to your immune system," Smart Planet, March 7, 2010. Dignan: Univ Copenhagen research 2010
Researchers found that T cells, need to be triggered into action. Vitamin D acts as that trigger. Without Vitamin D, these T cells remain dormant.
Edwards Kim, "Higher Vitamin D Intake Needed To Reduce Cancer Risk," UCSD News Center, February 22, 2011. Edwards: Vit D prevents cancer 2011
Engelsen Ola, "The Relationship between Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure and Vitamin D Status," Science News Online, May 4, 2010. Engelsen UVB exposures & vit D 2010
Figure 3. Required UV exposure times around noon for a cloudless sky, and typical conditions with respect to latitude and day of year to obtain approximately the equivalent of 400 IU when the face, neck and hands with type I skin are exposed. The red areas illustrate when this vitamin amount is not achievable from the sun. The required dose can be obtained in minutes in the black area. From Source Figure3 below: Holick, M.F. Environmental factors that influence the cutaneous production of vitamin D. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 1995, 638S-645S. | Webb, A.R. Who, what, where and when – influences on cutaneous vitamin D synthesis. Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol. 2006, 92, 17-25.
Ethnicity: is an important factor in the determination of vitamin D status of an individual, due somewhat to dietary factors but mostly to skin coloration. Those with darker pigmentation are at much higher risk of vitamin D deficiency than those who are lighter-skinned. Ethnicity
Feldman D, Pike JW, Adams JS., Vitamin D, Book, Third Edition by Elsevier Academic Press, 2011.
Forms: [ Wikopedia ] Several forms (vitamers) of vitamin D have been discovered. The two major forms are vitamin D2 or ergocalciferol, and vitamin D3 or cholecalciferol. These are known collectively as calciferol. We generally refer to various forms of the vitamin as vitamin D.
Gaby Alan R., M.D., Jonathan V. Wright, M.D., Forrest Batz, Pharm.D. Rick Chester, N.D., DipLAc. George Constantine, R.Ph., Ph.D. Linnea D. Thompson, "The Natural Pharmacy: Complete A-Z Reference: to Natural Treatments for Common Health Conditions" Gaby: The Natural Pharmacy: Complete A-Z Reference
Garland Cedric F, Garland FC, Gorham ED, et al., "The Role of Vitamin D in Cancer Prevention." Am J Public Health. 2006;96:252. Garland: Studies advocating prevention 2006
Garland Cedric F, "What’s the evidence? - The Vitamin D Deficiency Epidemic - A Call to D*action by 48 Scientists," GrassrootsHealth, 2016, University of California, Moores Cancer Center, Garland: Vit D evidence-epidemic call to action 2016
Gilchrest Barbara A., "Sun exposure and vitamin D sufficiency," American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 88, No. 2, 570S-577S, August 2008. & Gilchrest: VitD sufficiency 2008
Giovannucci E, Liu Y, Rimm EB, et al., "Prospective Study of Predictors of Vitamin D and Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Men," J Natl Cancer Inst 2006;98:451. [ Harvard School of Medicine ]. Giovannucci: Vit D and cancer 2006
Glerup H, Mikkelsen K, Poulsen L et al., "Commonly recommended daily intake of vitamin D is not sufficient if sunlight exposure is limited,"J.Intern.Med. 2000;247:260-8. in references: Glerup: The-Miracle-of-Vitamin-D 2000
Goetz Phil, "Even if you have a nail, not all hammers are the same," Less Wrong, March 29, 2010. Goetz: wrong analysis 2010
Gottlieb Bill, "The Easiest Way to Prevent Colds and Flu," The Huffington Post, Nov 17, 2011. Gottlieb: Preventing colds & Flu 2011
Grant William B., "Reducing the Burden of Disease Through Adequate Intake of Vitamin D3,". Sunarc UCSD presentation, April 9, 2008. Grant: Vit D reduces diseases2008
Grant William B., "Vitamin D, periodontal disease, tooth loss, and cancer risk," The Lancet Oncology - Volume 9, Issue 7 (July 2008). Grant: Peridontal disease and Vit D 2008
Grassroots Health Scientists, "GrassrootsHealth Calls for Action: All Breastfeeding Women Should Supplement with 6400 IU Vitamin D daily," Scientists: Grassroots Health Vit D for breastfeeding women 2016
Gominak Stasha, "Using vitamin D and the B vitamins to improve your health," Vitamin D Hormone. January 2016. Gominak: Using vit D 2016
Hall Laura, "Vitamin D Levels Fall Far Short in Winter," UC Davis, 2010 Hall: UC Davis study 2010 A UC Davis research team led by assistant professor Laura M. Hall, Ph.D., made two findings. Both are sobering in terms of average vitamin D intakes in America … and somewhat unsurprising to folks who follow vitamin D research: Light-skinned people need at least 1300 International Units (IU) per day during the winter. Dark-skinned people need 2100 to 3100 IU per day during the winter and throughout the rest of the year.
Heaney RP, Armas LA, Shary JR, Bell NH, Binkley N, Hollis BW. "25-Hydroxylation of vitamin D3: relation to circulating vitamin D3 under various input conditions." Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Jun;87(6):1738-42. Heaney: Adeq nut vitD 2008
Henderson Bill, "Vit D wins again," [ Claims that vitamin D stopped influenza ], CANCER-FREE Newsletter April 30th, 2010. Henderson: Testimonial that vitamin D stopped influenza 2010
Higdon Jane, Ph.D., “Vitamin D,” Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, March 2004. Web: Higdon: Oregon State info center 2004
Holick MF, Diabetes and Vitamin D," Vitamin D Health.org, November 27, 2008. Holick: diabetes-vit D 2008
Holick, MF. "Vitamin D Deficiency," New England Journal of Medicine, July 2007. Holick vit D Def 2007
Holick MF., "Vitamin D Deficiency: What a Pain It Is," Mayo Clinic Procedings, December 2003, Volume 78 Number 12 Holick: Mayo clinic proceedings 2003
Holick MF, "VITAMIN D AND HEALTH IN THE 21ST CENTURY: BONE AND BEYOND," American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 80, No. 6, 1678S-1688S, December 2004. Holick: Vit D future abstract 2004
ABSTRACT: "Most humans depend on sun exposure to satisfy their requirements for vitamin D. Solar ultraviolet B photons are absorbed by 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin, leading to its transformation to previtamin D3, which is rapidly converted to vitamin D3. Season, latitude, time of day, skin pigmentation, aging, sunscreen use, and glass all influence the cutaneous production of vitamin D3. Once formed, vitamin D3 is metabolized in the liver to 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and then in the kidney to its biologically active form, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Vitamin D deficiency is an unrecognized epidemic among both children and adults in the United States. Vitamin D deficiency not only causes rickets among children but also precipitates and exacerbates osteoporosis among adults and causes the painful bone disease osteomalacia. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with increased risks of deadly cancers, cardiovascular disease, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and type 1 diabetes mellitus. Maintaining blood concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D above 80 nmol/L (30 ng/mL) not only is important for maximizing intestinal calcium absorption but also may be important for providing the extrarenal 1-hydroxylase that is present in most tissues to produce 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Although chronic excessive exposure to sunlight increases the risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer, the avoidance of all direct sun exposure increases the risk of vitamin D deficiency, which can have serious consequences. Monitoring serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations yearly should help reveal vitamin D deficiencies. Sensible sun exposure (usually 5–10 min of exposure of the arms and legs or the hands, arms, and face, 2 or 3 times per week) and increased dietary and supplemental vitamin D intakes are reasonable approaches to guarantee vitamin D sufficiency."
Hollis BW., "Editorial: the determination of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D: no easy task," J. Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2004;89:3149-3151.
Hollis BW, Wagner CL, Drezner MK, Binkley NC. Circulating vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D in humans: An important tool to define adequate nutritional vitamin D status," J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2007 Mar;103(3-5):631-4. Hollis Adeq nut vit D 2007
Hughes Ellen," Nutrition in a bottle," First Aired: 9/21/2009 88 minutes." Hughes:video presentation on nutrients and supplements 2009 Hughes: Map 2: cancer incidence
Hunt Curtis, "The Biochemical Effects of Physiologic Amounts of Dietary Boron in Animal Nutrition Models," Environmental Health Perspectives, 102, Supplement 7, November 1994. Hunt: Boron ad Vit D 1994
IANS, "Large dose of vitamin D in pregnancy cuts premature births," Health News, May 1st, 2010. Ians: lower premature births 2010
Immunity & vit D, Wikipedia. Wikipedia: Immunity & Vit D
"Immune system: VDR ligands have been shown to increase the activity of natural killer cells, and enhance the phagocytic activity of macrophages. Active vitamin D hormone also increases the production of cathelicidin, an antimicrobial peptide that is produced in macrophages triggered by bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Suggestions of a link between Vitamin D and the onset of multiple sclerosis posited that this is due to the immune-response suppression properties of Vitamin D and that vitamin D is required to activate a histocompatibility gene (HLA-DRB1*1501) necessary for differentiating between self and foreign proteins in a subgroup of individuals genetically predisposed to MS. Whether vitamin D supplements during pregnancy can lessen the likelihood of the child developing MS later in life is not known; however, vitamin D fortification has been suggested to have caused a pandemic of allergic disease and an association between vitamin D supplementation in infancy and an increased risk of atopy and allergic rhinitis later in life has been found . Veteran vitamin D researcher Hector DeLuca has cast doubt on whether vitamin D affects MS."
Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes: Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1997.
Institute of Medicine, "Report: Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D," Washington, D.C., National Academies Press, Released: November 30, 2010. IOM: Report 2010
Jablonski, Nina G. and George Chaplin, "The evolution of human skin coloration," Journal of Human Evolution, February 18, 2000. Jablonski article and map 2008
Jajoo Ramina, MD, Lingyi Song, MS, Helen, Rasmussen, RD, MS, Susan S. Harris, DSc and Bess Dawson-Hughes, MD., "Dietary Acid-Base Balance, Bone Resorption, and Calcium Excretion," Journal of the American College of Nutrition, Vol. 25, No. 3, 224-230 (2006) Jajoo: Body acidity & vit D 2006
Johnston Laurance, “Sunlight, vitamin D and Health," Johnson: healing therapies and Sunlight
"Improving calcium and vitamin D nutritional status substantially reduces all-cancer risk in postmenopausal women.
Keenan Grace, MD., "References for The Vitamin D Debate," Healthy Ageing, 2016, Vol. 4 • Issue 4 • Page 17. Keenan: The-Vitamin-D-Debate 2016
Kimlin Michael G., William J. Olds, Michael R. Moore, "Location and Vitamin D synthesis: Is the hypothesis validated by geophysical data?" Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology 86 (2007) 234–239. Kimlin: Vit D synthesis valiation 2007
Kricker A, Armstrong B.,"Does sunlight have a beneficial influence on certain cancers?" Prog Biophys Mol Biol. 2006 Sep;92(1):132-9. Epub 2006 Feb 28. School of Public Health, University of Sydney, Edward Ford Building A27, NSW 2006, Australia. Kricker: Sunlight minimizes cancers 2006
Laino Charlene, "Vitamin D May Lower Heart Disease Risk," WebMD Health News, March 15, 2010. [ Studies Suggest That Correcting Vitamin D Deficiency Improves Heart Health Laino: Vit D improves heart 2010
Lambert Craig, "Too Much sunscreen?" Harvard magazine, September-October, 2005. Lambert: too much sunscreen 2010
Lappe Joan M, Dianne Travers-Gustafson, K Michael Davies, Robert R Recker and Robert P Heaney, “Vitamin D and calcium supplementation reduces cancer risk: results of a randomized trial,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 85, No. 6, 1586-1591, June 2007. Lappe: Vit D reduces cancers 2007 Vitamin D can decrease your risk of cancer by up to 77%.
Latest Attempt to Discredit Vitamin Therapies: Is it Criminal? Discrediting vitamins
Leavett Stewart B. Vitamin D – A Neglected ‘Analgesic’ for Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain," Pain Treatment Topics, June 2008, Leavett: Excellent summary on Pain & vit D 2008
Leavett Stewart, "Vitamin D – A Neglected 'Analgesic' for Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain: An Evidence-Based Review & Clinical Practice Guidance," [ Chronic Pain ] PAIN MANAGEMENT, [ Pain Treatment Topics ] June/July/August 2008. Leavett: Clinical concepts about pain 2008 | Leavett: Chronic pain treatment2008
Leis KS, McNally JD, Montgomery MR, Sankaran K, Karunanayake C, Rosenberg AM., "Vitamin D intake in young children with acute lower respiratory infection," Transl Pediatr December 21, 2011, 2224-4336. Leis: Vit D uptake with young children 2011
LE Magazine,"Medication side-effects," Life Extension Magazine, March 2003. LE Mag: Drug side effects 2003
"Individual variation with medications isn't the exception; it's the rule. The basis of individual variation is well known. People differ greatly in how they absorb, metabolize and eliminate drugs. The new science of pharmacogenetics has revealed wide variations in the efficiency of people's liver enzymes in processing drugs. People also differ in the sensitivity of their tissues to medication effects. These factors change with age, and many people become more sensitive as they get older."
Lensmeyer GL, Wiebe DA, Binkley N, Drezner MK, "HPLC method for 25-hydroxyvitamin D measurement: comparison with contemporary assays," Clin Chem 2006;52:1120-26. Lensmeyer Vit D lab test 2006
Lusky Karen, "Vitamin intrigues, not not a done deal," Cap Today, American College of American pathologists, June, 2009. Lusky: Vit D testing 2009
Matsuoka LY, Wortsman J, Haddad JG, Kolm P, Hollis BW. "Racial pigmentation and the cutaneous synthesis of vitamin D [see comments]," Arch.Dermatol. 1991;127:536-8.
Mawson Anthony R., "Role of Fat-Soluble Vitamins A and D in the Pathogenesis of InfluenczaL A new perspective," SRN Infectious Diseases, 2013, Volume 2013, Article ID 246737, 26 pages. Mawson: Vits A & D role in influenza 20113
McDougall John, "Sunny Days, Keeping Those Clouds Away…," McDougall Newsletter, 2005. McDougall newsletter 2005
Mead Nathan, "Benefits of sunshine," Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol 116, No 4, April, 2008. Mead: Benefits of sunshine 2008
Merlino LA, Curtis J, Mikuls TR, Cerhan JR, Criswell LA, Saag KG, "Vitamin D intake is inversely associated with rheumatoid arthritis: results from the Iowa Women's Health Study," Arthritis Rheum. 2004 Jan;50(1):72-7. Merlino: Rheumatoid Arthritis 2004
Major GC, Alarie F, Dore J, Phouttama S, Tremblay A, "Supplementation with calcium + vitamin D enhances the beneficial effect of weight loss on plasma lipid and lipoprotein concentrations," Am J Clin Nutr., 2007 Jan;85(1):54-9. Major: Vit D and weight loss 2007
Mercola Mercola: vitamin-d-spray "Tip: cut your risk to cancer by 50% with vitamin D. Technical ability to measure vit D in body has only been available for 10 years. Consequently, many MD may not be up to date on the latest vitamin D research and information. 85 % of US population is deficient in vitamin D and about 95 % of world population. Two individuals taking same dose could have a variability difference of 600 % on a vit D test. This is related to person's body weight [ 50 % ] and genetic differences. Key: Need to have a reliable vit D test [ Lab Lab is best.
Mercola Video: Mercola:youtube play
Mercola video: Most astonishing disasters of 20th century: Mercoloa: Youtube watch
Scientists say vitamin D from ultraviolet rays may fight cancer,” MSNBC, May 23, 2005. Scientists: Vit D may fight cancer 2005
Mead Nathan, "Benefits of sunshine," Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol 116, No 4, April, 2008. Mead: Benefits of sunshine 2008
Merlino LA, Curtis J, Mikuls TR, Cerhan JR, Criswell LA, Saag KG, "Vitamin D intake is inversely associated with rheumatoid arthritis: results from the Iowa Women's Health Study," Arthritis Rheum. 2004 Jan;50(1):72-7. Merlino: Rheumatoid Arthritis 2004
Norman Anthony W., "From vitamin D to hormone D: fundamentals of the vitamin D endocrine system essential for good health1,2,3,4," American Society for Clinical Nutrition Norman: Hormone D 2008
Office of Dietary Supplements, Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Vitamin D, Website US Office: dietary-supplements info
Orthomolecular Medicine, "Vitamin D Boosts Health, Cuts Cancer Risk in Half," Orthomolecular Medicine News Service, October 3, 2007. Orthomolecular Med and vit D 2007
Pain: Vitamin D deficiency is a major contributor to chronic low back pain as well as persistent, nonspecific musculoskeletal pain. Chronic Pain Pain: See Stewart info below
Park Alice, "Balancing the Risks: Skin Cancer Patients Are Deficient in Vitamin D," Thme HealthLine, October 19, 2010 . Park: balancing risks 2010
Parker, J., Hashmi, O., et al. “Levels of vitamin D and cardiometabolic disorders: Systematic review and meta-analysis.” MATURITAS. 2010 Mar: 65(3):225-236. Parker: Vit D levels & CVS 2010 [ People with the highest levels of vitamin D had a 43 percent lower rate of heart disease.]
Premenstral Pain: Studies show a significant association between low 25(OH) D levels and higher incidence of premenstrual syndrome (PMS. | Treatment with calcium plus vitamin D decreases symptom severity in women with PMS
Pick Marcelle NP, "Is vitamin D deficiency casting a cloud over your health?" Women to Women, June 27, 2005.
"Calcitriol is biologically active form of vitamin D, also known as vitamin D3 (or 1,25[OH]2D; or simply cholecalciferol). This is the form that goes to work by attaching itself to vitamin D receptors present throughout the body. Today we know there are vitamin D receptors in some three dozen different target organs in the body! Researchers have also recently found that in addition to being converted in the kidneys to this active form, calcidiol is converted into calcitriol in about ten other organs in the body — the lymph glands and skin tissue, too, for example. These discoveries are exciting because they lead us to understand how important vitamin D is for whole-body wellness, not the least of which include prevention — and treatment — of certain types of cancer."
Position Locations latitude - longitude in USA: Look-up Latitude and Longitude - USA
Practitioner Briefing, " Vitamin D – A Neglected ‘Analgesic’ for Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain." vitamin D-briefing
Prog Biophys Mol Biol. 2006 Sep;92(1):132-9. Epub February 28, 2006.
Radiation, "UV Index: Nature of UV Radiation," National Weather Service. Radiation & vit D best time This graph shows how the UV dose rate varies throughout the day. The amount of UV radiation reaching the surface at larger solar zenith angles is much less than at smaller solar zenith angles.
Rao, Anuradha, Ralph D. Woodruff, Wendy N. Wade, Timothy E. Kute and Scott D. Cramer, "Genistein and Vitamin D Synergistically Inhibit Human Prostatic Epithelial Cell Growth," J. Nutr. 132:3191-3194, October 2002. Rao: Cofactor genistein and vit D 2002
Rao Jammi N and L J Sant Cassia, "Ethics of undisclosed payments to doctors recruiting patients in clinical trials," British Medical Journal, July 6, 2002. Rao: Clinical trials lack ethics 2002
Research Vitamin D: Research: Vit D affect on body diseases and disorders
Requirements: Research indicates that well adults and adolescents should receive at least 5,000 IU vitamin D3 per day (either from sunlight or supplementation) to achieve blood levels in the desired range of 50–80 ng/mL. Research: Vit D Requirements
Rode von Essen Marina, Martin Kongsbak, Peter Schjerling, Klaus Olgaard, Niels Ødum & Carsten Geisler, "Vitamin D controls T cell antigen receptor signaling and activation of human T cells," Nature Immunology 11, 344 - 349 (2010) Published online: 7 March 2010. Rode: Vit D and receptor cells 2010
Roan Shari, "Vitamin D linked to lower heart disease risk "By raising low levels of the vitamin to normal levels, patients reduce their risk of heart disease by about 30%, an observational study finds." Los Angeles Times, March 15, 2010. Toan: Vit D and heart disease 2010
Rollins Gina, "Vitamin D testing -- What's the right answer," Clinical Lab news, American Association for Clinical Chemistry. July, 2009 Volume 35 Number 7. Rollins: Vit D testing 2009
Sayre, R. M., Dowdy, J. C., Shepherd, J., Sadig, Bager, A., and Kollias, N. "Vitamin D Production by Natural and Artificial Sources," 1998. Orlando, Florida, Photo Medical Society Meeting. 3-1-1998. Ref Type: Conference Proceeding
Saul Andrew W., “VITAMIN D: Deficiency, Diversity and Dosage, ”Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine, 2003; Vol. 18, Numbers 3 and 4, p. 194-204. Saul:Doctor yourself vitamin D 2003
Schreiber, H. Anderson, T. “Statin-Induced rhabdomyolysis.” Ophthalmology. 2006 Aug; 31(2):177-180. Rhabdomyolysis is when your muscle cells begin to break down. You become sore and weak. But you may have other symptoms, like nausea or an abnormal heart rate. It can develop into kidney failure.
Sears Al, "The Truth About "Vitamin Sunshine," Nutrition, March 1st, 2010. Sears: Vitamin sunshine 2010
Schwartz Gary G., William J. Blot, "Vitamin D Status and Cancer Incidence and Mortality Something New Under the Sun," Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2006 98(7):428-430. Schwartz:Vit D and cancer status 2006
Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition in UK. "Update on Vitamin D. Position Statement by the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition." London: The Stationery Office, Limited, 2007. Advisory Com on nutrition: Update Vit D
Shephard RM, DeLuca HF, "Plasma concentrations of vitamin D3 and its metabolites in the rat as influenced by vitamin D3 or 245-hydroxyvitamin D3 intakes," Arch Biochem Biophys 1980;202:43-53. Shephard: Vit D intake 1980
Skin Cancer Foundation Web: Skin Cancer Foundation: vitamin-d-and-sun-exposure
Sirus Mark, "Magnesium the Lamp of Life," International Medical Veritas Association, November 18, 2008. Sirus: magnesium insulin_medicine 2008
DermNetSkin phototype: New Zealand, DermNet: Skin phototype "The classification of skin type known as the Fitzpatrick skin type (or phototype) depends on the amount of melanin pigment in the skin. This is determined by constitutional colour (white, brown or black skin) and the result of exposure to ultraviolet radiation (tanning). Pale or white skin burns easily and tans slowly and poorly: it needs more protection against sun exposure. Darker skin burns less and tans more easily. It is also more prone to develop postinflammatory pigmentation after injury (brown marks).
Society for Endochronology, "Vitamins." January 11, 2015. Society for Endochronology vit D is hormone 2015
"This instrument is designed for both outdoor solar measurement and indoor UVR appliance measurement. The sensor/detector response follows the Diffey Erythemal Action Spectrum (EAS) effective irradiance (Eeff), and thus remains accurate for various spectral power distributions. Eeff is used here as a proxy for Vitamin D action spectrum weighted irradiance (Deff), which is very similar but cuts off at 330 nm. Spectral radiometer tests have shown Eeff and Deff to be virtually linearly proportional outdoors ± ~4 hours from solar noon, and indoors for most commonly used UVR lamps."
Graph Source: Instructions on using solarmeter
Sorenson Mark, "Vitamin D and Depression: How Sad," January 12, 2009. Seasonal affective disorder (SAD)
Staropoli John F., "Funding and Practice of Biomedical Research," JAMA. 2003;290:112. Staropoli: Pharma approves most medication research 2003 "Since the 1980s the industry now provides about 70% of all funding for clinical drug trials in the United States."
Sullivan Krispin, "Caution- Living Systems are Complex Systems," Sullivan Living complex systems
Sullivan Krispin, CN, is a Clinical Nutritionist, “The Miracle of Vitamin D,” The Weston A. Price Foundation, December 30, 2000. Sullivan The-Miracle-of-Vitamin-D 2000 | Sullivan: Recommendations for D test 2000
Sullivan Krispin, "Naked at Noon, Understanding Sunlight and Vitamin D' Excerpts with references," 2003. Sullivan: Vit D Excepts
Sunscreens: Instead of smearing smelly lotions and sunscreens, you can take supplements that protect you against the sun from the inside while allowing your skin to make vitamin D. All safely and no side-effects.
Szivos Sandra, "Vitamin D crucial to activating immune defenses," Nature Immunology, March 07, 2010. Szivos: Vit D and immune defenses 2010
Synthesis: Vitamin D3 is made in the skin when & 7-dehydrocholesterol reacts with UVB ultraviolet light at wavelengths between 270–300 nm, with peak synthesis occurring between 295-297 nm. These wavelengths are present in sunlight when the UV index is greater than 3. At this solar elevation, which occurs daily within thetropics, daily during the spring and summer seasons in temperate regions, and almost never within the arctic circles, adequate amounts of vitamin D3 can be made in the skin after only ten to fifteen minutes of sun exposure at least two times per week to the face, arms, hands, or back without sunscreen. However, season, geographic latitude, time of day, cloud cover, skin cover, skin color, smog, and sunscreen affect UV ray absorption and vitamin D synthesis. For example, sunlight exposure from November through February in Boston is insufficient to produce significant vitamin D synthesis in the skin. With longer exposure to UVB rays, an equilibrium is achieved in the skin, and excess vitamin D simply degrades as fast as it is generated. Source: Holick, MF. Vitamin D Deficiency. New England Journal of Medicine, July 2007
Taylor Paul Anthony, "Big Media: Not an Ally in the Campaign for Vitamin Freedom," Dr. Rath Health Foundation Taylor: campaign to discredit health
Toxicity: Vit D Toxicity One of the least toxic substances to humans, overdose of vitamin D3 doesn't occur until more than 100 times (approximately one bottle of vitamin D3 tablets) the daily RDA has been taken daily for several months. Acute, one-time overdoses require over 50 mg (10,000 times the RDA).
Toxin and Radiation Exposure Research indicates vitamin D is a significant factor in detoxification and protection against environmental toxins and that vitamin D3 may protect hair follicles from radiation toxicity.
Tufts University Research list of Diseases: Tufts Univ: Disease List
UVB Exposure: UV Exposure Sunlight has an enormous impact on health via the skin's neuroendocrine system. Exposure toUVB enables the body to build a strong skeletal structure, heart, and muscles as well as optimize the immune system and utilization of sugar. Compared with nontanners, tanners have been found to have robust levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D at winter's end and, as a result, higher bone density." Melanocytes
Upton Julie, "How to get vitamin D safely," Health magazine, July 15, 2009.
Suggestions from Min-Wei Christine Lee, MD, MPH, a board-certified dermatologist
Vieth R., May 1 1999."Vieth: Vitamin D supplementation, 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, and safety". Am J Clin Nutr: 69(5): 842–56. PMID 10232622. | Vit D supplement
Vieth R, Bischoff-Ferrari H, Boucher BJ, Dawson-Hughes B, Garland CF, Heaney RP, et al. "The urgent need to recommend an intake of vitamin D that is effective," Am J Clin Nutr 2007;85:649-50. Vieth: urgent Vit D intake 2007
Vitamin D Council, " Depression and Depression," Vitamin D Council [ John Cannell ] March 20, 2004. Vit DF Council: Depression & Vit D 2004
Vitamin D Council, "Am I vitamin D deficient?" January 10, 2008. Vit D Council: Min dosage 2008
Vit D Deficiency: Vitamin D Deficiency Vitamin D Deficiency is a world-wide epidemic, with over one billion people at risk for its associated diseases.
Vitamin D reference list: Vitamin-D-Reference-List
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December 3, 2008. Wasmeier: Melanosomes 2008
"The production of melanin takes place in modified organelles within the
melanocyte called melanosomes."
Woollams Chris, with contributions by Dr. Damian Downing, "Vitamin D is a natural cancer cure," Febtuary 11, 2010 Woollams: Vitamin D is a natural cancer preventative 2010
Zimmerman Rachel, "New Vitamin D Recommendations: Skeptics Remain," Common Health, Boston University, November 30, 2010. Zimmerman: Skeptics Vit D 2010