Posted March 22, 2011. Updated July 03, 2011 Work in progress; Disclaimer The information presented here is for informative and educational purposes only and is not intended as curative or prescriptive advice.
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The 2010 nuclear power plant disasters in Japan alerted people throughout the world that iodine can be used as a medication for persons poisoned by radiation. Now many persons are suddenly embracing iodine in hopes that it will save them from possible nuclear radiation exposure.
The truth of this panic is that they do not need to take iodine if they have not been exposed to radiation. And if they have been exposed then they should be taking potassium iodide under a medical doctor's care.
Prior to the March, 2011 Japanese nuclear plant disaster, iodine was a most forgotten nutritional requirement. Derry: Iodine forgotten weapon Iodine was added to table salt in 1924 in an effort to prevent goiter. Goiter occurs in areas where the soil is deficient in iodine. When there is too little iodine in the diet for the thyroid gland to produce enough thyroxin hormone, the gland swells up trying synthesize thyroxin while at the same time trying to capture what little iodine is available. The gland becomes a goiter, a visible, noncancerous enlargement of the thyroid gland. Some goiters become quite large, as illustrated in the photo.
The emission of iodine radiation particles into the air from Japan's nuclear power plant disaster has added to the confusion about nutritional iodine and radiation iodine. This article explores the both types of iodine and iodine's role in maintaining health. Back to top
Iodine as a health requirement
What is iodine?
Iodine from the Greek word "iodes," means violet or purple; is a chemical element that has the symbol 'I' and the atomic number 53. Iodine and its compounds are primarily used in nutrition, the production of acetic acid and polymers. Iodine has low toxicity, and the ease with which it attaches to organic compounds have made it a part of many health analyses tests in modern medicine. There are many forms of iodine. Back to top
What's wrong with iodine in America?
Today iodized table salt has been the chief source of iodine in a Western diet. But 45 percent of American households buy salt without iodine, which grocery stores also sell. And over the last three decades people who do use iodized table salt have decreased their consumption of it by 65 percent. [ These buying-using trends may be a public reaction to the salt scare by medical doctors ] Furthermore, the much higher concentrations of chloride in salt (NaCl) inhibits absorption of its sister halogen iodine (the intestines absorb only 10 percent of the iodine present in iodized table salt). As a result, 15 percent of the U.S. adult female population suffers from moderate to severe iodine deficiency, which health authorities define as a urinary iodine concentration less than 50 µg /L. Women with goiters (a visible, noncancerous enlargement of the thyroid gland), due to iodine deficiency, have been found to have a three times greater incidence of breast cancer. A high intake of iodine is associated with a low incidence breast cancer, and a low intake with a high incidence of breast cancer. Miller: iodine for health Cousens: Iodine
We have a continuing medical-health dilemma! We have conflicting information about iodine ... we are told that too much salt causes cardiovascular problems on the one hand but, on the other hand, that in reducing salt intake we also reduce much needed iodine intake! We are afraid of iodine causing health problems on the one hand and, on the other hand, hesitant in using it to prevent breast lumps [ fibrous tissue ] and cancer and become healthier! While these health issues incubate, our wellbeing stagnates and gets worse and worse!
New Iodine health benefits:
Iodine [ tincture of iodine ] has been known as a universal antiseptic for 150 years and has few side effects except in high doses. Iodine is an instant universal killer of microorganisms. Iodine [ none tincture ] was introduced into our diets with iodized salt by David Marine in 1920 - 1924.
A miniscule amount of iodine has, to a large extent, effectively eliminated goiter, cretinism, and mental retardation; which were caused by inadequate iodine in our diet. Derry: Iodine forgotten weapon
Iodine was classified over 50 years ago as an essential trace element for life. Trace implies that just a very little iodine is needed to activate a gland. Most of us, including the medical community, have been lulled into accepting the idea that iodine is needed in very small amounts to prevent goiter. While it is true that a trace amount of iodine prevents goiter, the equally important role of iodine in maintaining the proper function of mammary and other glands, tissues and cells in the body have been overlooked.
Oh yes, our grandparents used tincture of iodine as a germicide! And this is the extent of our knowledge about how iodine affects the human body. If you are one of these persons with this ancient information, then you are living in the past! There is new information that iodine is an essential nutrient and that all body cells need iodine.
UPDATE: Iodine is found in every cell of the body in trace [microgram ] amounts, but .... many organs in the body require iodine in magadoses to function normally. Fleisher: Deficiency iodine NHANES Cousens: Iodine
Iodine plays a number of important health roles in the body. The thyroid gland uses it to make thyroxin, with 4 iodine atoms, and triiodothyronine (T3), with three. The active form, T3, regulates metabolism, thermogenesis, and protein synthesis.
Iodine is found in every cell of the body. It is concentrated in the glandular tissue which includes the thyroid, ovaries, uterus, breasts, and probably the prostate. We are having epidemic problems with the thyroid, ovaries, uterus, breasts and the prostate gland. All of these tissues require and utilize iodine for proper functioning.
Other tissues and glands require iodine to function normally, including stomach mucosa, salivary glands, and the thymus gland. Iodine functions as an antioxidant, strengthens the immune system, and suppresses autoimmunity. And it triggers apoptosis, destroying cells that become cancerous and cells infected with viruses. Iodine also removes toxic chemicals from the body – fluoride, bromide, lead, aluminum, and mercury. Iodine is essential for health. Miller: Iodine for Radioactive Fallout
Whole body sufficiency and Orthoiodosupplementation: These are two new terms that are used by the experts on iodine; but for most readers, these terms do not have much meaning. What is whole body sufficiency?
Thyroidologist Dr. Guy Abraham points out that whole body iodine sufficiency occurs when the body is saturated with sufficient iodine to supply all the tissues. Abraham: Orthiodinesupplementation
Whole body sufficiency is the amount of iodine needed to provide adequate amounts of iodine to all body cells and organs so these can function optimally and prevent tissue disorders and diseases. New research points out that preventing goiter with a minimum amount of iodine may prevent goiter but it does not provide additional iodine to the other cells of the body. This would result in iodine deficiency. When the entire body receives all the essential iodine that all tissues and organs need, then the body becomes sufficient in iodine. Abraham concluded that whole body sufficiency exists when a person excretes 90 percent of the iodine ingested [ iodine-loading test ]. Miller: iodine for health
Iodine sufficiency has been associated with a sense of overall well being, lifting of “brain fog,” feeling warmer in cold environments, increased energy, needing less sleep, achieving more in less time, experiencing regular bowel movements and improved skin complexion. Abraham: Iodoral therapy& wellbeing
Orthoiodosupplementation is the daily amount of the essential element iodine that the entire body needs.Iodine makes other hormones: Iodine is not only necessary for the production of thyroid hormone, it is also responsible for the production of all of the other hormones of the body. Fleisher: Deficiency iodine NHANES Schachter: Iodine role
Iodine needed for immune system: Adequate iodine levels are necessary for proper immune system function. Iodine contains potent antibacterial, antiparasitic, antiviral, and anticancer properties. Iodine is also effective for treating fibrocystic breasts and ovarian cysts. Many medical doctors have also found that iodine, with an adequate dosage, can help prevent certain cancers. Miller: iodine for health Brownstein lists some of the many benefits of iodine and some of the conditions that would benefit from adequate iodine supplementation. Brownstein: Iodine epidemic Cousens: Iodine
Iodine needed against microbes: Iodine circulating in the blood is captured by many tissue sites and ends up in mucus secretions. Specific immune tissues include thyroid and salivary glands, nasal secretions, stomach, and lungs. Collectively, these tissues and mucus products contain free iodine which defends against invasion by bacteria and viruses. Iodine enhances and activates the immune system of the body. Such iodine activity, in turn, creates a much larger demand for iodine than previously assumed. Derry: Iodine forgotten weapon Miller: iodine for health Schachter: Iodine role Cousens: Iodine
Dietary iodine insufficient: Dietary iodine found in iodized salt is below the amounts needed to fill mucus defense roles. To protect themselves against infection, people wishing to boost their defense against infections and diseases should supplement their diets with the "iodide" form of iodine in the form of Lugol’s solution, or the Lugol tablet [ under guidance of their health care provider ]. Most people will probably be protected by an amount of Lugol’s that provides the average amount of iodine ingested by Japanese populations for centuries. This amount is about 12 mg daily. Two drops of Lugol’s daily in the liquid of their choice will provide 13 mg. Derry: Iodine forgotten weapon Derry: Weapon against flu & viruses
Nascent iodine has the "iodide" form of iodine that is recognized by the thyroid gland but lacks the "iodine" form of iodine that mammary and other glands need. Those ingesting nascent iodine may not be able to provide enough iodine for optimal well-being.
Iodine prevents cancer: Iodine prevents cancer by a process that induces apoptosis, or programmed cell death. This process is essential to growth and development (fingers form in the fetus by apoptosis of the tissue between them) and for destroying cells that represent a threat to the integrity of the organism, like cancer cells and cells infected with viruses. Human lung cancer cells with genes spliced into them that enhance iodine uptake and utilization undergo apoptosis and shrink when given iodine, both when grown in vitro outside the body and implanted in mice. Its anti-cancer function may well prove to be iodine's most important extrathyroidal benefit. Miller: iodine for health Cousens: Iodine
The Body works orthobiotically: Iodine works best when it is integrated and combined with other essential nutrients [ co-factors ] like vitamin C, magnesium, tyrosine, and selenium [ although this is an incomplete list of helpful nutrients ]. Like all other nutrients, iodine needs help to be absorbed, circulated and metabolized in the body. Iodine works in concert with other nutrients and not by itself! Researchers and medical doctors cannot get a clear picture of how iodine functions unless they view all the iodine co-factors as well.
Summary of benefits from mega doses of Iodine: [ Brownstein: Iodine epidemic, Derry: Weapon against flu & viruses , Miller: iodine for health Quailwebb: Lugol's iodine Higdon: iodine Linus Pauling Institute Cousens: Iodine ]
There is controversy as to the dosage required to help iodine become activated in the body, especially in maintaining a healthy immune system, prevent influenza and diseases such as cancer. Abraham: Thyroid fixation Dr. Brownstein said he was using 200 to 300 mg with his prostate and breast cancer patients with those who have metastases needing the highest dosages. He also uses both Lugol’s and Nascent [ iodine ] reserving the Nascent for his more sensitive patients. There are the iodine tablet forms of varying dosage used by numerous iodine doctors. Brownstein: Iodine epidemic
For whatever irrational reason, doctors and patients fear iodine and thus, en mass, do not use or prescribe iodine to its fullest potential. Abraham: Thyroid fixation Fleisher: Deficiency iodine NHANES Iodine doctor Dr. David Derry, MD, of Canada says that, “Dietary iodine found in iodized salt is below the amounts needed to fill mucus defense roles. To protect themselves, people wishing to boost their defense against infections should supplement their diets with iodine.” Derry: Iodine forgotten weapon Back to top
Tincture of iodine:
Iodine [ tincture of iodine ] was used as a very good disinfectant before WWII era, but has since been overlooked as a domestic germicide.
Elemental iodine is used as a disinfectant in various forms:
Tincture of iodine is a disinfectant, usually 2-7% elemental iodine, along with potassium iodide or sodium iodide, dissolved in a mixture of ethanol and water. Tincture of iodine is often found in emergency survival kits, used both to disinfect wounds and to sanitize surface water for drinking. A 1% tincture of iodine will kill 90% of bacteria in 90 seconds, a 5% tincture in 60 seconds and a 7% tincture in 15 seconds. Saunders: Iodine need Wiki: Tincture iodine Back to top
Thyroid function and iodine:Medical schools focus on the relationship between iodine and the thyroid gland. They depict iodine as a trace mineral and overlook iodine as an essential nutrient. This is the extent of their understanding of how the body uses iodine. refer to normal thyroid function, Higdon: iodine Linus Pauling Institute Miller: iodine for health Schachter: Iodine role Back to top
The above section focuses on thyroid function while this section summarizes what happens to iodine in ALL of the body:
Absorption in general: Research is skimpy about how iodine is absorbed into the body. We know that iodine may be absorbed through the skin and ingested through the mouth [ digestive system ]. When someone swallows Lugol's solution, we lack precise details about how much molecular iodine ends up in the blood stream and how much is excreted? Similarly, when iodine is painted on the skin and it gradually disappears, how much is evaporating and how much is being absorbed? Iodine Group: Iodine absorption
"Thyroid metabolism is controlled locally in the tissue by each organ. That is, the brain has one mechanism for controlling the amount of thyroid available to the brain but it is different from other tissues such as the liver. There are many mechanisms by which each tissue controls the amount of thyroid hormone which gets into the tissues. But to discuss one: there is an enzyme in the tissue which deiodinates (takes one iodine off the thyroxine T4) and makes T3 or triiodothyronine. These enzymes are called deiodinases. Every tissue has different types of deiodinases. To just give you one example: If you starve animals and study the deiodinases in the brain and liver you find that the activity in of the brain deiodinases go up by 10 times while at the same time the liver deiodinases go down--not up. This mechanism is obviously meant to preserve the functioning of the brain under starvation conditions and not metabolize too much thyroid hormone in the liver. Therefore the control of thyroid metabolism is in every individual tissue. The problem with this is-- if a tissue needs more (such as the brain with depression) there is no way for the brain to signal the thyroid that it needs more sent up to it. The thyroid merrily goes on putting out the same amount of thyroid hormone. So the patient can have symptoms related to low thyroid in the brain (for example) but the thyroid doesn't do anything about it. But if you give thyroid hormones in an adequate dose the brain symptoms will disappear. Meanwhile the other tissues and organs adapt to the increased circulating hormones that you have used to fix the brain with. The adaptation of the tissues to different levels of circulating hormones has been shown in the literature." Shomon: Derry interview
Because different tissues concentrate different forms of iodine, using a supplement that contains both iodine and iodide is preferable to using a supplement that contains only one form. For example: breasts concentrate iodine while the prostate gland concentrates iodine. The thyroid gland and the skin primarily concentrate iodide. Other tissues, including the kidneys, spleen, liver, blood, salivary glands and intestines can concentrate either form. With different tissues responding to different forms of iodine, it would make common sense that a greater therapeutic benefit from iodine will be achieved by using a COMBINATION OF IODINE AND IODIDE. A combination of IODINE/IODIDE (e.g., Lugol's or Iodoral) is much more effective than an iodide only supplement (e.g., SSKI and most other liquid iodide formulations)."
When is the body prone to pick up radiation iodine? Answer: It does so when the thyroid gland is deficient in iodine! But to fully understand this possible happening, you need to understand how the human body gets, stores and uses iodine. The thyroid gland preferentially concentrates iodide whereas the mammary gland favors iodine. So this means that the human body needs both kinds of iodine for optimal health.
Iodine in the form of iodide is actively transported with sodium to the
thyroid cells. Movement into the
thyroid gland takes place by way of the sodium-iodine pump [ referred also as
the sodium-iodide symporter or iodine pump ].
Iodine in high concentration in the blood passes into a lower
concentration in the thyroid cells.
This is essentially diffusion taking place through a permeable membrane.
Dosage: The normal daily requirement of the body for iodine has never been determined. In this absence, the optimal daily requirement for iodine has been estimated at 6 mg of iodide for the thyroid gland and 5 mg of iodine for the mammary glands. Abraham: Orthiodinesupplementation Cousens: Iodine The medical perception of body requirement for iodine is based on the amount of iodine needed to prevent goiter. As pointed out elsewhere, this amount will not provide sufficient iodine to the rest of the body; hence this perception is an outdated one!
Iodine Storage: The thyroid gland has the ability to control the amount of iodine in its storage depot. The optimal daily requirement for iodine has been estimated at 6 mg of iodide for the thyroid gland and 5 mg of iodine for the mammary glands.. Abraham: Iodoral therapy& wellbeing When the amount of iodine in the thyroid storage depot falls below its normal required amount, the thyroid gland seeks to get more iodine. This gives the thyroid gland a protective mechanism, limiting the uptake of peripheral iodide to a maximum of 0.6 mg per day when 50 mg or more elemental iodine is ingested. Such iodine demand can be any form that is available to it, including radiated iodine or I-131.
Iodine circulation: Now, the thyroid gland will reject Iodine -131 when its storage depot is full and when the rest of the organs and cells also have fulfilled their requirements for iodine. That is why those deficient in iodine need to be given a safe form of iodine [ under the care of a health care professional ] before being exposed to nuclear fallout radiation like iodine 131. This amount therefore would serve as a preventive measure against radioactive fallout Abraham: Iodoral therapy& wellbeing
In addition to the thyroid and mammary glands, other tissues also possess an iodine pump (the sodium/iodine symporter). Stomach mucosa, the salivary glands, and lactating mammary glands can concentrate iodine almost to the same degree as the thyroid gland (40-fold greater than its concentration in blood). Other tissues that have this pump include the ovaries; thymus gland, seat of the adaptive immune system; skin; choroid plexus in the brain, which makes cerebrospinal fluid; and joints, arteries and bone. Miller: iodine for health
Iodine excretion: Almost all iodine is excreted in the urine. However, iodine can also be found in feces and sweat. Excess iodine that is not used by the thyroid gland is circulated throughout the body, making the excess iodine available to other body organs and tissues, like mammary breasts, prostate gland and every cell in the body. The adult body retains approximately 1.5 gm iodine at sufficiency or maximum load. At such time, additional ingested iodine, [ now in excess ] may be quantitatively excreted in the urine as iodide. Abraham: Iodoral therapy& wellbeing Such urine may appear to be a shade of yellow-orange color. This excess iodide in the urine is the basis for the urine loading test. Urinary iodide levels are considered the best index of iodine intake. Abraham: Iodoral therapy& wellbeing
Iodine detoxification: Maximum iodine loading of all organs results in automatic but gradual detoxification of toxic metals: aluminum, cadmium, lead and mercury from the body over varying periods of time. In addition to detoxifying these metals, maximum iodine loading also increases urinary excretion of fluoride, chlorine and bromide, thus decreasing the iodine-inhibiting effects of these halides. Such simultaneous occurring detoxification may cause one to temporarily feel sick for a short time [ a natural process of cleansing ]. Abraham: Iodoral therapy& wellbeing Back to top
Information in medicine and nutrition about nutrients that affect absorption, circulation and utilization of iodine in the body are missing or poorly organized. Numerous researchers mention nutrients as these were observed in their research. Higdon: iodine Linus Pauling Institute But not on a total understanding of cofactors.
Scientists do not have a clear picture of just how each of the co-factors work in helping iodine do its job. Neither have scientists identified all the cofactors. So although the list below is incomplete, it is a good starting point: [ compiled by Walter Sorochan ]
Although the exact amount of each nutrient you should ingest is not known, you should rely on eating a balanced diet as the best source of the essential co-factors; and supplement where needed. Each person's need for nutrients is a unique bio-chemical requirement and should be monitored by an informed health care provider.
Excess calcium supplementation [ 2000-3000 mg/day ] has been the most common cause of poor iodine response. So if you want iodine to be absorbed, you need to minimize your calcium intake. And yes, this may be contradictory to what has been recommended by nutrition and medical experts [ to avoid osteoporosis ], but then who said that they have all the answers?
Source: (Feb 2008) Dr. Guy Abraham cautions that "excess calcium supplementation (2,000 - 3,000 md/day) has been the most common cause of poor response to iodine supplementation." Vitamin Research News Vol. 22. Number 2.
Goitrogens may have nutrients that can affect iodine function.
Scientists lack a thorough understanding of how iodine enters the body. There seem to be two primary methods: the skin (transdermal) and the mouth (oral).
Much of our early information about iodine absorption and bioavailability has been derived from animal studies and then inferred to humans. Abraham: Skin application
Miller reports that only 10 % of iodine present in iodized salt is absorbed into the blood stream; with the rest excreted in the urine. Miller: iodine for health Abraham reports that iodine evaporates rapidly from the skin in the first few minutes, Abraham: Skin application with about 50% of the remaining iodine on the skin being available during the first 24 hours following skin exposure to iodine. Iodine Group: Iodine absorption But other than these expert opinions, very little is understood about how iodine absorption takes place. For example, what happens to the various iodine products as they enter the mouth, the stomach, the intestines, the blood stream? When someone swallows a drop of Lugol's solution, how much molecular iodine ends up in the blood stream? What other iodine forms are created? Iodine Group: Iodine absorption Researchers need to simplify this information so the general public can understand the fate of iodine in the body.
The interplay of iodine co-factors, food synergy, drug interactions and biochemical individuality on iodine absorption is not fully understood. It is assumed that dietary iodine (I2) is reduced to iodide (I-) in the stomach and gut, is rapidly absorbed into the blood stream and circulates as iodide. When iodine transport damage occurs, it can be corrected, in part, by administration of reasonably high doses of ascorbic acid or more natural Vitamin C.
It should be obvious from the comments above that in spite of lacking information and research about iodine absorption, this should not stop us from ingesting iodine.
Dietary intake RDI/RDA
The normal daily requirement of the body for iodine has never been determined. Abraham: Orthiodinesupplementation The recommendations by the numerous advisory boards are based on preventing goiter in the thyroid gland.
The Recommended Dietary Allowance/Reference Daily Intake Higdon: iodine Linus Pauling Institute
The Reference Daily Intake (RDI), previously RDA, for iodine was reevaluated by the Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) of the Institute of Medicine in 2001. The recommended amounts were calculated using several methods, including the measurement of iodine accumulation in the thyroid glands of individuals with normal thyroid function. These recommendations are in agreement with those of the International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders, the World Health Organization, and UNICEF.
In order to minimize the risk of developing hypothyroidism, the Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) of the Institute of Medicine set a tolerable upper level of intake (UL) for iodine at 1,100 mcg/day for adults. Very high (pharmacologic) doses of iodine may also produce thyroid enlargement (goiter) due to increased TSH stimulation of the thyroid gland. Prolonged intakes of more than 18,000 mcg/day (18 mg/day) have been found to increase the incidence of goiter. The UL is not meant to apply to individuals who are being treated with iodine under medical supervision. Author's comment: The board appears to either disregard iodine's maximum loading impact on redistribution of iodine to other organs and tissues of the body or the board lacks complete understanding of the pharmacology of iodine in the body and iodine's impact on thyroid function.
The UL values for iodine are listed by age group in the table below: Higdon: iodine Linus Pauling Institute
**Source of intake should be from food and formula only. Higdon: iodine Linus Pauling Institute
The tolerable upper limit was assessed by analyzing the effect of supplementation on thyroid-stimulating hormone. Wiki: iodine
The thyroid gland needs no more than 70 micrograms per day to synthesize the requisite daily amounts of T4 [ thyroxine ] and T3 [ triiodothyroxine ]. The higher recommended daily allowance levels of iodine seem necessary for optimal function of a number of body systems, including lactating breast, gastric mucosa, salivary glands, oral mucosa, thymus, epidermis, choroid plexus, etc. The high iodide-concentration of thymus tissue in particular suggests an anatomical rationale for this role of iodine in the immune system. The trophic, antioxidant and apoptosis-inductor actions and the presumed anti-tumor activity of iodides has been suggested to also be important for prevention of oral and salivary glands diseases. Wiki: iodine Back to top
Are you allergic to iodine?
Studies show that a person with any type of allergy is also more likely to have iodine allergy. But persons most likely to be allergic to iodine are those who are also allergic to sea foods [ which contain iodine ]. Those who are allergic to shellfish can display symptoms from eating, touching or smelling seafood. Here is a list of possible symptoms:
1. Allergic reactions happen within thirty minutes after ingesting the reactive protein
Iodine Allergy Treatment: Get person with allergic reaction to a medical doctor as soon as possible. Back to top
Symptoms of iodine deficiency include goiter, mental retardation, sleeplessness, extreme fatigue, muscle cramps, cold hands and feet, proneness to weight gain, poor memory, constipation, depression and headaches, agitation, sudden hot flashes, increased body temperature, edema, myalgia, weakness, dry skin, and brittle nails. Wiki: iodine Miller: iodine for health Higdon: iodine Linus Pauling Institute Bhattacharyya: I test
More independent research is needed to identify the vast role that iodine plays in the body.
Today over 13 million Americans are iodine deficient. Bhattacharyya: I test Medical doctor David Brownstein MD found that 94.7% of his patients were deficient in inorganic iodine. Brownstein: Iodine epidemic Iodine deficiency affects about two billion people in the world and is the leading preventable cause of mental retardation. Wiki: iodized salt Back to top
Treating Iodine Deficiency:This section is relevant for health care professionals. Dr. Michael B. Schachter says, “The treatment dose when a person is iodine insufficient is generally between 12.5 mg and 50 mg daily. Preliminary research indicates that if a person is iodine insufficient, it takes about 3 months to become iodine sufficient while ingesting a dosage of 50 mg of iodine and a year to become iodine sufficient while ingesting a dosage of 12.5 mg of iodine daily. However, the patient needs to be monitored closely for possible side effects and detoxification reactions.” This is quite a bit of iodine and if his statements can be substantiated then most people are using dosages which are much too low. Brownstein: Iodine epidemic Back to top
Goitrogens are substances that decrease iodine uptake. Goitrogens Most goitrogens are not of clinical importance unless they are consumed in large amounts or there is coexisting iodine deficiency. Recent findings also indicate that tobacco smoking may be associated with an increased risk of goiter in iodine-deficient areas. Higdon: iodine Linus Pauling Institute Cousens: Iodine
Certain beverages can interfere with iodine absorption. Such beverages are goitrogens. Common goitrogens are: Hol hea: Iodine deficiency
Iodine and the Halogen robbers
Iodine as a nutrient has difficulty helping us stay healthy. This difficulty is due to iodine being easily replaced by its relatives fluoride, bromide and chlorine that act as goitrogens. The periodic table helps us understand how this can happen. Abraham: Orthiodinesupplementation Miller: Halogens Iodine and Fluoride
The periodic table [ below ] organizes earth elements into groups that have common characteristics. Iodine is in the red colored group [ column 17 ] in the table below. This group is referred to as the Halogen g group or "salt formers." Their outer shells lack one electron, making them very unstable and very active ... wanting to combine with other metals and elements [ e.g. NaCl or common salt ].
This halogen group has an hierarchial behavior. Fluorine ["F"] replaces any other halide ion below it in the red colored column 17. Chlorine replaces those below it but not fluorine: bromide, iodide, and astatide ions; while bromine replaces only iodide and astatide ions. halogen elements
"There is 30,000 times more chloride than iodide on a molar basis in iodized salt. Due to competition for intestinal absorption between the halides chloride and iodide, only 10 percent of iodide in iodized salt is bioavailable." Abraham: Iodoral therapy& wellbeing
Iodine is next to the bottom of this family. This means that it can be replaced by those above it. Thus bromide and chlorine can easily replace iodine in the body. Bromide and chlorine can be referred to as goitrogens.
The significance of this information about how halogens behave in the periodic table is that the industry and health professionals are continuing to neglect the health risks of using bromide, chlorine and fluoride.
Bromide disables the body
The significance of this halogen hierarchy is that iodine as an essential nutrient can be displaced in the food chain by bromide compounds used as pesticides in agricultural crops, by chlorine in chlorinated water and fluorides used to prevent dental decay. When iodine is replaced by the more active halogens, the body absorbs less iodine and the population is then at increased risk to goiter and other diseases and disorders --- including silent health problems. Abraham: Orthiodinesupplementation
Bromides are a good example of how iodine in our diet is being displaced by industrial and agricultural use of bromide. Bromide is toxic to the human body. CDC: toxic effects It is used:
n in pools and hot baths as an antibacterial agent.
n as a fumigant to kill pests in fruits and vegetables
n as a fumigant to kill termites
n in foods and soft drinks
n in medicines
n in bakery products
Bromide level in the ocean can affect the differing amounts of bromide and iodine in different seaweeds. Alan R. Gaby, MD., quotes research-doctors Abraham and Brownstein: "There are many kinds of seaweeds that evolved over billions of years into different types. Some are more selective in concentrating iodide than others. For example, the oceans contain 1400 times more bromide than iodide. To keep toxic goitrogenic bromide out of seaweed, the iodide uptake mechanism must be very selective. The levels of heavy metals in seaweed vary, depending on the kind of seaweeds and on industrial dumping of toxic waste in the areas where seaweeds are harvested." Gaby: debate_ortho Thus, although most seaweeds contain both bromide and iodine, bromide may be absorbed by some seaweeds in amounts so great as to minimize iodine absorption. All seaweeds are not the same!
Fluoride is found in drugs such as Prozac and Paxil, and Flonase and Flovent. Saunders: Iodine need Current careless use of bromide and fluoride interferes with iodine absorption; thereby creating iodine deficiency.
There is real controversy about adding fluoride to drinking water. Many states like California have legislated for this. Unfortunately, most politicians are ignorant of the health hazards of fluoride.
People who live in non-fluoridated communities consume, on average, 4 mg of fluoride a day. It is in toothpaste, fruit juices, soda pop, tea, and processed foods. People living in fluoridated areas consume twice as much fluoride, 8 mg/day as those in non-fluoridated areas. Fluoride is absorbed through the skin, bathing and wearing clothes washed with fluoridated water. It is also possible that you could inhale aerosolized fluoride and absorb it through the lungs when taking a shower with fluoridated water. It is estimated (no direct measurements have been done) that two-thirds of the fluoride people take into their bodies using fluoridated community water comes from bathing and wearing clothes washed in it. Athletes and people working in hot climates who drink a lot of water, people with kidney failure, and infants who are fed formula with fluoridated tap water are at particular risk for being subjected to a potentially toxic daily dose of fluoride. Miller: fighting fluoride
Iodine as detoxifying agent
Iodine, in adequate amount, is a detoxifying agent for halogens, heavy metals and mercury. It chelates heavy metals and can gradually remove them from the body. Abraham: Orthiodinesupplementation Cousens: Iodine Back to top
Natural sources of iodine:
The iodine content of most foods depends on the iodine content of the soil and water. Seafood is rich in iodine because marine animals can concentrate the iodine from seawater. Certain types of seaweed (e.g., wakame) are also very rich in iodine. Processed foods may contain slightly higher levels of iodine due to the addition of iodized salt or food additives, such as calcium iodate and potassium iodate. Dairy products are relatively good sources of iodine because iodine is commonly added to animal feed in the U.S. In the U.K. and northern Europe, iodine levels in dairy products tend to be lower in summer when cattle are allowed to graze in pastures with low soil iodine content. The table below lists the iodine content of some iodine-rich foods in micrograms (mcg). Because the iodine content of foods can vary considerably, these values should be considered approximate. Higdon: iodine Linus Pauling Institute
*A three-ounce serving of meat is about the size of a deck of cards.
Garlic, lima beans, sesame seeds, soybeans, spinach, Swiss chard, summer squash, and turnip greens are also good sources of this mineral. Bakeries may also add iodine to dough as a stabilizing agent, making bread another source of iodine; however, most bakeries in the USA now use bromine instead of iodine. Quailwebb: Lugol's iodineCheck your food stores for iodine enriched food items like sea kelp-pasta.
Fish and Iodine. Eating fish won't give you iodine in mg amounts. To get 13.8 mg iodine, you would have to eat 10-20 pounds of fish per day. Miller: iodine metabolism
Foods containing chlorophyll have long been known to protect against radiation. This includes all chlorophyll foods: cabbage, leafy green vegetables, spirulina, chlorella and wheatgrass.
As the table above illustrates, it is difficult to get adequate amount of iodine from a daily diet. That is why the governments of the world added trace amount of iodine to salt in 1924. But even this addition has not been working for the past 30 years.
American vs. Japanese Iodine ConsumptionThe Japanese consume 100 times more iodine than Americans. 95% of the iodine they consume comes from seaweed, which includes kelp, brown algae, nori sheets, red algae, chlorella and green algae. In a 1964 study, the Japanese ate 4.5 grams of seaweed per day, equal to 13.8 mg of iodine per day. In a 2001 study, the consumption of seaweed had increased to 14.6 grams per day, equal to 43.8 mg of iodine per day. The Japanese are very healthy. This is clear evidence that large amounts of iodine cannot be very bad for a population. Miller: iodine metabolism Dr. Miller's iodine presentation as PowerPoint Slides only.
According to public health officials in Japan, people in Japan consume 14.5 gm of seaweed a day. They don’t need to take potassium iodide tablets for radiation fallout. They consume enough iodine in the seaweed they eat. According to Miller, [ a cardiac surgeon and Professor of Surgery at the University of Washington School of Medicine in Seattle ] the iodine level in the bodies of Japanese is at maximum level and will not absorb I-131. Miller: iodine for health This is information that has been withheld from the American population.
Iodine in Supplements:
Iodine is included in vitamin-mineral supplements, usually in amount containing 150 mcg iodine or 100% of RDA requirement. A multivitamin-mineral supplement, that contains 100% of the daily value (DV) for iodine, provides 150 mcg of iodine. Although most people in the U.S. may consume sufficient iodine in their diets from iodized salt and food additives to prevent goiter, an additional 150 mcg/day in a supplement is unlikely to result in excessive iodine intake. Higdon: iodine Linus Pauling Institute The extra intake may be beneficial in activating other metabolic processes.
Iodized Salt: Iodized salt (also spelled iodised salt) is table salt mixed with a minute amount of various iodine-containing salts. Potassium iodide as well as potassium iodate may be used to iodize salt. In the U.S. and Canada, iodized salt contains 77 mcg of iodine per gram of salt. In other countries, salt commonly contains 20-40 mcg of iodine/gram of salt; the iodization level depends on variables such as iodine intake from other sources and daily salt consumption. Annual doses of iodized vegetable oil are also used in some countries as an iodine source. Higdon: iodine Linus Pauling Institute
You should be aware that iodized salt may slowly lose its iodine content by exposure to excess air over long periods. Iodine can oxidize [ evaporate ] over time and iodized salt loses its potency for providing minimum iodine to the body.
Lugol's solution: Other iodine supplements are Lugol's solution [ liquid form ] and Iodoral [ tablet form of Lugol ].
Both Lugol's solution and Ioderal are one-third molecular iodine (5%) and two-thirds potassium iodide (10%). Studies done to date indicate that the best iodine supplement is one that includes molecular iodine, which breast tissue prefers. Miller: iodine for health
"When Lugol's is made, an aqueous solution of potassium iodide (LI) is prepared by dissolving KI in water, say ten grams KI in 85 grams water. Then, once dissolved, five grams of iodine crystals are added to the potassium iodide solution. The diatomic iodine adds to the iodide ions in the KI solution to form potassium tri-iodide, which is what Lugol's solution REALLY is. Tri-iodide is stable, but when diluted it disproportionates back to iodide ions and elemental iodine. So, by ingesting diluted Lugol's iodine, a test subject will be provided with both iodied and elemental iodine." Curezone: iodine forms
Lugol's solution may be not available over the counter in the USA as of January 2007, as the DEA is considering a public ban on all iodine solutions of greater than 2.2% [ because iodine is required for the production of methamphetamine ]. Lugol's is available over the counter in Canada.
Both of these supplements can be ordered online or from the internet; health food stores usually do not sell these supplements. Back to top
There are two ways to get a maintenance amount of iodine into the human body ---- absorb it through the skin or ingest it orally. Both approaches need to be done in a proper and safe manner.
Liquid Lugol’s solution can be taken orally [ the mouth ] as follows: IMVA: Iodine dosages
Diluting the drop of iodine
in a glass of apple cider or orange juice helps minimize the unpleasant taste of
You can gradually increase iodine from one drop to two drops in a glass of
water. The daily maintenance
amount of iodine intake for the whole, adult human body would be equivalent to 2 drops
of Lugol solution. Children and those weighing
less than 150 pounds should take one drop. In the
You can also apply Lugol's solution directly to the skin.
Iodine Tablet: Lugol’s solution in a tablet form is known as Ioderal. Tablets are easier to take than Lugol’s solution. To prevent gastric irritation and the unpleasant taste of iodine, the tablets are coated with a thin film of pharmaceutical glaze.
It is important to keep in mind that people of all ages have different bio needs and that supplementation may need to be adjusted and supervised by an informed health care professional.
Absorbing iodine through the skin:
When painted on the skin prior to surgery, tincture of iodine kills 90 percent of bacteria present within 90 seconds.) Miller: iodine for health Most of the iodine [ probably about 80 to 85 percent ] evaporates rapidly; the remainder is absorbed slowly into the body, thus forming an iodine depot [ storage ] in the skin for several days. This prolonged retention of iodine within the skin allows it to be absorbed directly into the blood stream and distributed to all organs and cells of the body usually within 48 hours. Abraham: Skin application Abraham: Update skin
There may be some discrepancy about the amount of iodine that evaporates from the skin and the actual amount that is absorbed into the body. Research substantiates that only about 12 – 15 % of the iodine on the skin is absorbed and the remainder evaporates. Miller: iodine for health Skin application of iodine is an effective, efficient and practical way for supplementation of iodine. Abraham: Skin application
The evaporation of iodine
from the skin increases with increased ambient temperatures and decreased
atmospheric pressure due to weather conditions and altitude. For example, the
yellow color of iodine on the skin will disappear much faster in
TSH [ thyroxin stimulant hormone ] test is the test that most doctors use to diagnose hypothyroidism. Shomon: Derry interview However this test has been perceived by several researchers as not the best test to determine the level of iodine in the body.
Norman reviews numerous iodine tests used in medicine. Here is an example: "T4 by RIA (radioimmunoassay) is the most used thyroid test of all. It is frequently referred to as a T7 which means that a resin T3 uptake (RT3u) has been done to correct for certain medications such as birth control pills, other hormones, seizure medication, cardiac drugs, or even aspirin that may alter the routine T4 test. The T4 reflects the amount of thyroxin in the blood." Norman: common thyroid tests
Iodine skin patch test: This test was used extensively for iodine supplementation over 100 years ago. The test consisted of applying an iodine solution to a small skin area of the arm, leg, or abdomen. The assumption was that the faster the yellow color of iodine disappears from the skin, the more iodine deficient the person tested; and vise versa, if the yellow color lingers, the more sufficient in iodine the person tested. According to Abraham and his research conducted in 2008, the skin iodine patch test is not a reliable method to assess whole body sufficiency for iodine. Many factors play a role in the disappearance of the yellow color of iodine from the surface of the skin. Abraham: Skin application Hendrichs: Lugol's Iodine Test
The iodine skin patch test raises another related question: Is the application of iodine to the skin an acceptable way to supplement iodine? Abraham's study of 2008 concluded that skin application of iodine is an effective, if not efficient and practical, way for supplementation of iodine with an expected bioavailability of 6-12% of the total iodine applied to the skin. Abraham: Skin application
Iodine loading test: Iodine clearance test urine normal values are based on seeing if the person is deficient in iodine or iodide. A sample of urine is taken as an early morning void to measure the level of iodine before loading. This is known as a SPOT test and it establishes the baseline value for the person. Next the patient is given 50 mg of iodine as a loading dose. A 24-hour urine collection for the amount of iodine or iodide excreted is taken after this load dose. This test will also compare the urinary iodine values to the normal creatinine value that is excreted by the kidney in urine. Creatinine is a byproduct of muscle metabolism and is an indicator of kidney function. Clarke: Urine I clearance test Sircus: iodine primer Shomon: Derry interview Iodine loading test
Iodine loading test, advocated by Abraham, Brownstein and Fleishner, is the best test to evaluate for the level of iodine in the body and also to determine the proper dose to prescribe. Abraham: Iodoral therapy& wellbeing Fleisher: Deficiency iodine NHANES Brownstein: Iodine epidemic Hakala Labe: iodine loading test Saunders: Iodine need Iodine loading test
Two labs that do iodine testing. They know who the doctors are who are doing the testing: FFP Labs: 877.684.3233 and Hakkala labs: 877.238.1779.
This web-site attempted to simplify iodine information by reviewing all the iodine information and documenting it on one web-site for easy access.
There are inconsistencies in the information about iodine. While researchers describe iodine research in technical details, unsophisticated readers often find such information difficult to understand. Several examples of note:
The controversy about the amount of iodine that is acceptable to the thyroid gland in preventing goiter on the one hand, but on the other, that an excess may cause thyotoxicosis and other thyroid diseases versus when is it acceptable to ingest more iodine than what the thyroid gland needs.
Foods that are good sources of anti-oxidants but have been recognized as goitrogens. Is broccoli good or bad?
All the co-factors of iodine have not been identified; that is, co-factors that help iodine utilization in the body. The co-factor ratios to iodine are sadly overlooked by researchers and medical doctors.
Need to clarify the discrepancy relationships between the Ca:Mg ratio and the relationship between iodine and magnesium. How do we balance the nutrient ratio requirements?
Lack of focus on total nutrient and life style impact on iodine utilization in the body. There needs to be a balance between using iodine to prevent diseases versus iodine needed for optimal wellbeing.
There are two forms of iodine that the body needs: IODINE AND IODIDE. Best supplements include a combination of both of these types of iodine.
Iodized table salt (sodium chloride) is NOT a good dietary source of iodine, because the much greater amount of chloride in food-grade salt [ as well as bromide ] competes with the iodide for intestinal absorption. Fleisher: Deficiency iodine NHANES
Iodine Deficiency related to cancer: The National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES Study), undertaken by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) from 1971 to 2000, showed that iodine levels in the general population have fallen over 50 percent in the last 30 years. This iodine fall correlates with the high cancer rates in the western world [ and also commercial uses of bromide and fluoride. ] Fleisher: Deficiency iodine NHANES
Iodine Benefits: Oral administration of nonradioactive iodide/iodine preparations has been demonstrated to benefit the immune system, thyroid disorders, including goiter, nodules, cysts and thyroid cancer. Abraham: Orthiodinesupplementation Fleisher: Deficiency iodine NHANES
Stay healthy: But ... you should make sure that you are ingesting adequate amounts of iodine. And ofcourse, it is essential to keep a healthy immune system by eating a balanced diet that includes chlorophyll rich foods and ingesting adequate amounts of vitamin D, vitamin C, calcium, selenium, anti-oxidants, Omega-3 fatty acids, magnesium and other nutrient supplements. It may be advisable to ingest calcium citrate to remove toxic substances from the body as a precaution. Vegans and vegetarians may be most at risk for iodine deficiency.
Thyroid fixation: Many medical doctors and medical schools are stuck on the out-dated view of iodine: "The reigning truth on iodine is that the thyroid gland is the only organ in the body that requires this micronutrient, and a daily intake considerably more than what the thyroid gland needs is potentially harmful. The new truth is that the rest of the body also needs iodine, in large amounts [ milligrams ], not small amounts [ micrograms ]." Miller: iodine for health Fleisher: Deficiency iodine NHANES Abraham: Thyroid fixation
There is a lot of misinformation about iodine as well as suppression of information. Mostly, many are afraid of the unknown .... whether supplementing with iodine is dangerous!
It is important for you, the
reader, to do your own research and come up with your own conclusions about
iodine. Once you understand the importance of this vital essential nutrient, you will
understand why it is crucial to ensure adequate iodine levels in you and your
family. This web-site article provides documented references and should get you started.
For more health information: Go to main
For more health information: Go to main menu
Abraham Guy E. MD, "Iodine," Health Salon. Abraham: Iodoral therapy& wellbeing
Whole body sufficiency for iodine correlated well with overall well being. "According to Dr. G. E. Abraham, "Of all the elements known so far to be essential for health, iodine is the most misunderstood and the most feared. Yet, it is by far the safest of all the trace elements known to be essential for human health. It is the only trace element that can be ingested safely in amounts up to 100,000 times the RDA. For example, potassium iodide has been prescribed safely to pulmonary patients in daily amounts of up to 6.0 gm/day, in large groups of such patients for several years. It is important however to emphasize that this safety record only applies to inorganic nonradioactive iodine/iodide, not to organic iodine-containing drugs and to radioiodides."
Abraham Guy. E. M.D., Jorge D. Flechas M.D. and John C. Hakala R.Ph., "Orthoiodosupplementation: Iodine Sufficiency Of The Whole Human Body," Abraham: Orthiodinesupplementation "Based on the information previously discussed, the optimal daily I intake for I sufficiency of the whole human body would be equivalent to 2 drops of Lugol solution. In the USA, the initial implementation of I supplementation at this level would require medical supervision."
Abraham Guy E., "The History of Iodine in Medicine Part III: Thyroid fixation and medical iodophobia," The Original Internist, 13: 71-78, June 2006. Abraham: Thyroid fixation
American Thyroid Association, "ATA underscores importance of KI distribution prior to nuclear emergencies," American Thyroid Association, March 15, 2011. ATA: Iodine Need for radiated persons
Antidote for iodine overdose: either high-dose vitamin C (at least 4g - that's 4000mg) or chocolate/cocoa which is high in bromine and displaces iodine when needs be.
Bhattacharyya Madhurjya, "Test for iodine deficiency," Buzzle.com, July 28, 2010. Bhattacharyya: I test
Brownstein David, ,Iodine, Why You Need It, Why You Can't Live Without It, Medical Alternative Press; 3rd edition (2004) Brownstein: book review
Colgan Paul, Owen Vaughan, "Crisis at Fukushima: As it happened," News.com Au, March 19, 2011. Colgan: Crisis Fukushima
Clarke Lashan, "Normal Values for the Urine Iodine Clearance Test," Bright Hub, July 13, 2010. Clarke: Urine I clearance test
Cousens, Gabriel, "Iodine – The Universal & Holistic Super Mineral," Cousens: Iodine
Crusador Interviews, "IODINE: Why You Need It, Why You Can't Live Without It," Interview with Dr. David Brownstein, Health Truth Revealed.com, March 15, 2011. Crusador Interviews
Darce Keith, "Traces of radiation detected in San Diego," The San Diego Union-Tribune, March 26, 2011, page A1.
Fibrocystic breast condition is a benign (non-cancerous) condition of the breasts, characterized by lumpiness and discomfort in one or both breasts.
Fleisher Mitchell A., "The Importance of Inorganic Iodine, Part 2," The Epoch Times Mar 27, 2006. Fleisher: Deficiency iodine NHANES "NHANES Study, undertaken by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) from 1971 to 2000, showed that iodine levels in the general population have fallen over 50 percent in the last 30 years"
Gaby, Abraham and Bernstein, “The Debate.” Gaby: debate_ortho
Goodman Rod, "More than a JAPAN Crisis. RADIATION PARTICLES ARE COMING "OUR" WAY!!!" [Nuclear Radiation, Fallout Safety Information] Peace for the soul, March 17, 2011. Goodman: radiation fallout coming
Hakala Research Reference Laboratory Hakala Labe: iodine loading test
Heimish Headlines, "Nuclear Expert: Radiation Could Spread To US West Coast," Heimish: radiation spread
Hendrichs CL, "What Does Lugol's Iodine Test for?." Hendrichs: Lugol's Iodine Test
"The Lugol's iodine thyroid test is an easy, do-it-yourself test that does not require a doctor's blessing or assistance. Use an eyedropper or brush to paint a 3-inch stain on your belly or upper thigh. Check frequently during a 24-hour period. If the stain disappears in less than 24 hours, it means the iodine has been absorbed by a body and thyroid craving iodine. You are iodine deficient. The same test can be used to correct your body's iodine levels. As insufficient iodine levels cause the iodine stain to be absorbed very rapidly, you can begin to feed" your body the iodine that it needs. When the stain disappears, reapply the Lugol's iodine again and continue checking to see if the stain has disappeared. Gradually, as your body absorbs enough iodine, the stain will take longer to disappear. Once the patch is still evident after 24 hours, stop the test. Your body should have enough iodine to aid in proper thyroid hormone production or use of supplemental thyroid hormones."
Higdon Jane, "Iodine," Linus Pauling Institute Oregon State University, MicroNutrient Information Center, Written in April 2003 Updated in March 2010 by: Victoria J. Drake, Ph.D. Linus Pauling Institute Oregon State University, Reviewed in March 2010 by: Elizabeth N. Pearce, MD, MSc. Associate Professor of Medicine Section of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Nutrition Boston University School of Medicine. Higdon: iodine Linus Pauling Institute
Hookway James and Michael Sainsbury, "Nuclear radiation fears sweep the Asia-Pacific region after Japan's quake and tsunami," The Australian, March 17, 2011. Hookway: radiation fears
Holistic Health, "Iodine deficiency," Mind Mart. Hol hea: Iodine deficiencyICCIDD, "Iodate or iodide? - more detail," National Research Development Corporation of India, New Delhi, India. Iodine production
Chile and Japan supply most of the world iodine.
IMVA staff, Iodine dosages: IMVA: Iodine dosages
Iodoral: The supplement Iodoral contains both the iodide (reduced) and iodine (oxidized) forms of iodine because the body needs both forms. The US RDA for iodine is 150 mcg. Iodoral contains 100 times (12.5 mgs) the RDA's requirement of iodine/iodide. It seems the conventional medical establishment again has grossly underestimated the amount of a nutrient needed for good health. According to Dr. G. E. Abraham, "Of all the elements known so far to be essential for health, iodine is the most misunderstood and the most feared. Yet, it is by far the safest of all the trace elements known to be essential for human health. It is the only trace element that can be ingested safely in amounts up to 100,000 times the RDA. For example, potassium iodide has been prescribed safely to pulmonary patients in daily amounts of up to 6.0 gm/day, in large groups of such patients for several years. It is important however to emphasize that this safety record only applies to inorganic nonradioactive iodine/iodide, not to organic iodine-containing drugs and to radioiodides." Robert Sarver, "Iodine Deficiency," 2005. from Dr. David Brownstein.
Lab test iodine, "The Iodine/Iodide Loading Test." Iodine loading test
Lochbaum David A., et la., Nuclear Energy Institute; "Hazards of Storing Spent Fuel," New York Times, March 18, 2011. NYT: Hazards storing spent fuel
McMahon, Jeff, "Three Sites Where You Can Monitor U.S. Radiation Levels," Forbes, Mar. 28 2011. McMahon: sites monitoring radiation
Miller Donald W., Jr., M.D., “Healthy and Harmful Halogens: Iodine and Fluoride,” Presented at the LewRockwell.com Conference Be Healthy, Wealthy, and Wise Center for Libertarian Studies, December 2, 2006, Foster City, CA. Miller: Halogens Iodine and Fluoride
Miller DW., "Iodine in Health and Civil Defense." Presented at the 24th Annual Meeting of Doctors for Disaster Preparedness in Portland, Oregon, August 6, 2006. The text for this talk, with 68 references, can be found here, Dr. Miller's iodine presentation as PowerPoint Slides only.
Miller Donald W., "Iodine for Health," LewRockwell.com March 16, 2006. Miller: iodine for health
Miller Donald, Jr., MD, "Iodine for Radioactive Fallout," Lew Rockwell, March 19, 2011. Miller: Iodine for Radioactive Fallout
Pennington Gena, "Don’t Take Potassium Iodide," The Aicata Eye, March 18, 2011. Pennington: No PI
Pizzorno Joseph, "Are Sea Vegetables the Cure for the Iodine Deficiency Epidemic?" Share Guide, Pizzorno: sea veggies for iodine
Quialwebb Herbal LCC, "Lugal's iodine," Dewey, Arizona 86327 928-759-9257 Quailwebb: Lugol's iodine
Sahelian Ray, M.D. "Kelp supplement benefit and side effects," Sahelian: Kelp and iodine
Saunders Terri, "Indispensible Iodine," Saunders: Iodine need
Schachter Michael B., "Iodine: Its Role In Health and Disease - Some New Exciting Concepts," Schachter Center for Complementary Medicine, August 7, 2005. Schachter: Iodine role
Shomon Mary, "Rethinking the TSH Test: An Interview with David Derry, M.D., Ph.D.," Thyroid-Info, March 16, 2011. Shomon: Derry interview
Sircus Mark, "Iodine dosages," IMVA Medical News Commentaries, November 19, 2009. Sircus: iodine primer
Sircus, Mark, "Potassium iodide," Conscious Media Network, March 14, 2011.
Sircus: potassium iodide Sircus Mark, "Radioactivity cover-up," Dr. Sircus Blog, April 12, 2011. Sircus: Radioactivity cover-up
Sircus Mark, "Radioactivity cover-up," Dr. Sircus Blog, April 12, 2011. Sircus: Radioactivity cover-up
Skidmore Brenda, "Iodine Deficient? A Simple Self-Test Can Show You Now," Ezine Articles, December 08, 2007. Skidmore: I def test
Southwerk, "Iodine-131 and Cesium-137," Pilant's Business Ethics Blog, March 19, 2011. Southwerk: radiation fallout
Staff writers, "16 signs - do I have radiation sickness?" News.com.au, March 16, 2011. Staff Aussies: radiation sickness
The Iodine Group, "Goitrogens." Goitrogens
The Iodine Group, "Iodine Absorption." Iodine Group: Iodine absorption
Wikipedia, "Nuclear War Survival Skills," Wiki: survival skills
Wikipedia, "Tincture of iodine." Wiki: Tincture iodine
Potassium iodide may be used to protect against accumulation of radioactive iodine in the thyroid by saturating the body with a stable source of iodine prior to exposure. Approved by the World Health Organization for radiation protection, potassium iodate [ KIO3 ] is an alternative to potassium iodide [ KI ], which has poor shelf life in hot and humid climates. The UK, Ireland, Singapore, United Arab Emirates, and some US states stock potassium iodate in tablet form. It is not approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use as a thyroid blocker, and the FDA has taken action against US websites that promote this use. Wikipedia